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Flashcards in minerals Deck (151)
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1

what are the two mineral classes?

Macro-minerals
Micro-minerals

2

what percent in diet is a macro-mineral?

> 0.01% (100mg/kg) in diet

3

what percent in diet is a micro-mineral?

< 0.01% (100mg/kg) in diet

4

Name the seven Macro-minerals

Calcium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Chlorine
Potassium
Magnesium
Sulfur

5

What are the 14 micro-minerals?

Iron Manganese
Copper Selenium
Molybdenum Fluorine
Iodine Silicon
Cobalt Chromium
Zinc vanadium
nickel arsenic

6

What is the elemental compositions of most species in regards to one another? What is the exception and why?

Most species have a relatively uniform elemental composition, except in young animals, which have lower Ca and P.

7

Dietary requirement is highly correlated with what?

body level

8

Concentration in animal tissues of Calcium

15 g/kg BW

9

Concentration in animal tissues of phosphorus

10 g/kg BW

10

Concentration in animal tissues of potassium

2 g/kg BW

11

Concentration in animal tissues of sodium

1.6 g/kg BW

12

Concentration in animal tissues of chlorine

1.1 g/kg BW

13

Concentration in animal tissues of sulfur

1.5 g/kg BW

14

Concentration in animal tissues of magnesium

0.4 g/kg BW

15

What are the structural functions of minerals?

components of bone and tissues, eg. Ca, P, and S

16

what are the electrochemical functions of minerals?

acid-base balance, osmotic control, H2O balance, eg. K, Na, and Cl

17

What are the catalytic functions of minerals?

component of hormones and enzymes, eg. S, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, I

18

Which mineral is the most abundant mineral element in the body?

Calcium

19

What percent of body weight is calcium in humans and animals?

1-2% of body weight

avg. human is 1.2 kg of Ca (90kg man)
avg. dairy cow is 9.4 kg Ca (600 kg cow)

20

Dietary sources of calcium for humans

milk and dairy products (75% of total)
legume seeds

21

good dietary sources of calcium in animals

-Legume roughage - 1-2% of DM

-animal by-products (meat by-products): 5-12% of DM

-fish meal: 3-8% DM

-ground limestone and dicalcium phosphate (dairy cows and laying hen diets) 30-40% of DiCal-P

22

Poor dietary sources of calcium in animals

cereal grains and roots - < 0.2% of DM

23

Functions of Calcium

Bone and teeth: 46% minerals by weight

egg shells: almost pure CaCO3
Muscle contraction and nerve impulses
Acid-base balance: cation-anion balance of diets
blood clotting mechanism

24

What mineral salts are in bones/teeth?

hydroxyapatite crystals: 36% Ca, 18% P, and 1% Mg

3 Cac (PO4)2 x Ca(OH)2
Ca:P ratio = 1.3 to 2:1

25

what is the Body distribution of Calcium

99% in bone and teeth
1% in blood, body fluids, and within cells

26

what is the Blood distribution of calcium

Plasma Ca(2+) levels
mammals: 2.25-2.75 mM (90-110 mg/liter)
poultry: 7.5 - 10 mM (300-400 mg/liter)

27

Where is calcium absorbed?

in the duodenum and jejunum

28

how is calcium excreted?

urine (20-30%)
feces (70-80%)
Perspiration (minor)

29

what ion is necessary at all steps in Fibrin formation?

Calcium (2+)

30

What are the ten factors influencing calcium absorption?

1. the sources of calcium
2. dietary acidity
3. sugars
4. vitamins
5. estrogen
6. age
7. excess phosphorus
8. phytate
9. Diet Fat content
10. Oxalates