Flashcards in Minerals Deck (33):
Functions of calcium
-helps build strong bones and teeth
-controlling muscle contractions (including heartbeat)
-ensuring the blood clots normally
Sources of calcium
Nuts, milk, tofu, oily fish, soya beans, cheese, green leafy veg, bread, fortified cereals
What happens if you are deficient in calcium?
- Rickets in children
- Osteoporosis in adults
What happens if you have too much calcium?
Stomach pain and diarrhoea
Functions of iron
- making red blood cells
(Stored in liver)(women should have more to allow for blood loss during menstruation)
Sources of iron
Animals and plants: eggs, liver, beans, nuts, dried fruit, green leafy veg, fortified cereals and bread.
What happens if you are deficient in iron?
Tiredness, pale, dizziness, brittle nails, cracked lips, shortness of breath during exercise
What happens if you have too much iron?
Large amounts can be harmful
Constipation, feeling sick, stomach pain
Functions of fluoride
- Helps to prevent tooth decay by strengthening the enamel.
- supporting bone health
Sources of fluoride
drinking water, fish when the bones are eaten - sardines, tea, seafood
What happens if you are deficient in fluoride?
Tooth decay is more common
What happens if you have too much fluoride?
Very large amounts cause staining and pits to develop on teeth
6g per day
Functions of sodium
- keeping the level of water in the body balanced
What is the other name for sodium?
Sources of sodium
Cheese, tinned foods, ready meals, bacon, bread, savoury snacks, smoked fish, salted nuts
What happens if you are deficient in sodium?
What happens if you have too much sodium?
Increased blood pressure - risk of a stroke or heart attack
Functions of phosphorous
- maintaining bones and teeth
- releasing energy from food
Sources of phosphorous
Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, brown rice, oats, beans, lentils
What happens if you are deficient in phosphorous?
Phosphorous is in so many foods you are unlikely to be deficient
What happens if you have too much phosphorous?
Reduced amount of calcium meaning bones are more likely to fracture
Functions of iodine
- making the hormone thyroxin which maintains a healthy metabolic rate
Sources of iodine
Red meat, cereals, grains, seafood, shellfish
What happens when you are deficient in iodine?
Main cause of goitre (- swelling of the thyroid gland - rare in the uk)
What happens if you have too much iodine?
Affects the thyroid gland, can lead to weight gain
Which nutrient does calcium compliment?