minerals module 2 week 2 Flashcards Preview

9th Earth Science A-G > minerals module 2 week 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in minerals module 2 week 2 Deck (87):
1

minerals made out of only one element

native elements

2

more than one element chemically combined

compound

3

a geometric solid with flat faces

crystal

4

a structure made of crystals

crystalline structure

5

An arrangement of atoms that repeats in a pattern

crystalline lattice

6

The most abundant element in the earth’s crust

oxygen (46.6%)

7

2nd most abundant element in the earth's crust

silicon (27.7%)

8

In order for the material to be considered a mineral it has to:

1 Be a solid
2 Be naturally occurring element or compound
3 Have a definite chemical composition where the elements have a particular proportion to each other
4 Have the atoms or ions in a particular pattern of arrangement (crystalline structure)
5 Be inorganic. This means, it cannot be made from plants, animals, or any other organisms, living or dead.
6 Have specific physical properties

9

How many elements are found in most minerals?

6

10

Computers have the mineral ______ in their motherboard

silica

11

Why is oil not a mineral?

because it is a liquid; because it is made of dead things

12

Some minerals are made out of ____________ element(s), called ___________ element(s).

one, native

13

Copper is generally used for _______________________.

electrical wiring

14

We brush our teeth using _____, an abrasive powder that scrubs our teeth. We take a shower, get out and maybe put __ ________ powder on us. We turn on the light switch that has wires made of __ _________.

calcium, talc, copper

15

What are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?

oxygen and silicon

16

all rocks are made of

minerals

17

Evaporated water can leave behind the mineral _________.

halite

18

a _________ is not a characteristic of minerals

random arrangement of atoms

19

cleavage

how a mineral splits along a plane

20

The mineral galena breaks into tiny cubes. Why does this occur?

Its internal arrangement of atoms causes it to form a cube

21

Which mineral has a streak that is different from the visible color?

pyrite

22

Which property is the most useful for identifying a mineral (one that is unlikely to change between specimens or types of minerals)?

streak test

23

Density is calculated by the _______________ of the mineral.

mass & volume

24

Which mineral reacts to the acid test?

calcite

25

What has a metallic luster and is 2.5 to 3 on the Mohs hardness scale?

galena

26

Which formulas are correct? (You may have to rearrange the formula - select all that apply)

M = D x V
V = M/D
D = M/V

27

Hardness 7 on the Moh's scale of hardness (quartz) _______________________.

can be scratched with a drill bit
cannot be scratched with a penny easily
cannot be scratched with a steel knife easily

28

Using the Mohs hardness scale, give the hardness of the mineral that can only be scratched by a steel nail.

6

29

Which is an example of an extrusive igneous rock?

scoria

30

Where do plutonic rocks form?

in the earth below the ground

31

Andesitic magma ____________________________. (

forms at subduction boundaries

32

The silica content of igneous rock ___________________________.

increases as the sample of rock gets lighter in color

33

Very small crystals in an igneous rock shows that it was formed ________________________.

in a very short period of time

34

The amount of magnesium and iron ____________________________.

increases in mafic rocks

35

Of these igneous rocks, which would contain the largest crystals?

diorite

36

Granite is formed when magma cools slowly. Granite is a (an) ____________

intrusive igneous rock

37

Basaltic magma ____________________________

forms in rifts or oceanic hotspots

38

Rhyolitic magma ____________________________

has the highest silica content

39

What processes cause igneous rocks to form?

melting and solidification

40

Andesitic magma has ____________________

intermediate composition and formed at a subduction boundary

41

A volcanic neck is an igneous intrusion ________________.

left behind after a volcanic eruption and erosion

42

What causes the melting temperature of magma to increase?

increasing the magnesium content

43

Rhyolitic magma contains ________________.

>70% silica, 4-6% gases

44

A dike is a type of igneous intrusion that __________________.

squeezes in upward cracks in the bedrock,
pushes its way up through cracks in rock layers

45

Pumice is an example of a (an) ______________.

extrusive, vesicular igneous rock

46

Obsidian is unusual in that ___________________.

even though it is dark, it is considered a felsic rock due to the silica and quartz content

47

Why does rhyolite have smaller crystals than granite?

rhyolite cooled quicker than granite

48

Gabbro is all of the following choices except ______________

aphanatic

49

Mafic igneous rocks contain about ___________________

50% silica

50

magma

molten rock below ground

51

lava

molten rock above ground

52

rocks that cool slowly have these

large crystals

53

rocks that cool quickly have these

small crystals

54

rocks that cool slowly then quickly

porphrytic

55

intrusive

igneous rocks that form below ground

56

extrusive

igneous rocks that form above ground

57

felsic

rocks that have more quartz and feldspar

58

mafic

rocks that have more magnesium and iron

59

granite

a rock that is high in silicon

60

the process of clastic rocks getting "glued" together

cementation

61

A stream deposits its sediment into a lake. In what order would you find the three types of clastic sedimentary rocks, top layer to deepest layer?

shale, sandstone, conglomerate

62

The process of overlying weight compressing rocks together

compaction

63

Fossils are only found in __

sedimentary rocks

64

Rock salt, gypsum, and chemical limestone are formed by

evaporation of water

65

If the rock particles are eroded and deposited, they may mix with dead organic matter to form _

organic sedimentary rock

66

Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by

clay, sand, or rocks being cemented together

67

The farther a sediment is transported, the _______________ the particle is.

smaller

68

A(n) ______________ is a rock that is formed by the precipitation of minerals after evaporation.

evaporite

69

Horizontal layers of sediment are laid down in a process called

stratification

70

What type of sedimentary rock is coal?

organic

71

There is a mineral that is common to both organic and chemical sedimentary rocks. Which is it?

calcite

72

____________ and silt are the two sediments that make up the sedimentary rock shale.

clay

73

A ______________ is evidence of something that was once alive and is now in a rock layer.

fossil

74

What type of sedimentary rock is composed of seashells?

coquina

75

Which rock is very porous and water can sometimes go right through?

sandstone

76

A sedimentary rock that can be made up of many whole igneous or metamorphic rocks is called _______________.

conglomerate

77

Sedimentary rock features include:

strata, footprints, fossils, ripple marks, geodes

78

What rock is formed due to the metamorphism of sandstone?

quartzite

79

In the metamorphism of shale, increasing temperature and pressure changes shale from ____________ to ___________to _____________ and finally ____________

Slate, Phyllite, Schist, Gneiss

80

A wavy patterned rock has been __________________.

folded

81

Non-foliated metamorphic rocks ______________________.

do not have foliation because there isn't enough pressure for the minerals to align themselves

82

What rock is formed due to the metamorphism of Limestone?

marble

83

Foliated metamorphic rocks are formed due to _________________________

intense heat and pressure, regional metamorphism and crystals aligning in bands

84

Banding in metamorphic rocks shows a type of foliation called _______________

gneissic foliation

85

Metamorphic rocks are formed by ____________________________.

heat and pressure

86

Metamorphic rocks occur mostly along ________________.

convergent plate boundaries

87

When a metamorphic rock splits along mineral layers that are parallel to each other, it is called _________.

slaty foliation