Flashcards in minerals module 2 week 2 Deck (87):
minerals made out of only one element
more than one element chemically combined
a geometric solid with flat faces
a structure made of crystals
An arrangement of atoms that repeats in a pattern
The most abundant element in the earth’s crust
2nd most abundant element in the earth's crust
In order for the material to be considered a mineral it has to:
1 Be a solid
2 Be naturally occurring element or compound
3 Have a definite chemical composition where the elements have a particular proportion to each other
4 Have the atoms or ions in a particular pattern of arrangement (crystalline structure)
5 Be inorganic. This means, it cannot be made from plants, animals, or any other organisms, living or dead.
6 Have specific physical properties
How many elements are found in most minerals?
Computers have the mineral ______ in their motherboard
Why is oil not a mineral?
because it is a liquid; because it is made of dead things
Some minerals are made out of ____________ element(s), called ___________ element(s).
Copper is generally used for _______________________.
We brush our teeth using _____, an abrasive powder that scrubs our teeth. We take a shower, get out and maybe put __ ________ powder on us. We turn on the light switch that has wires made of __ _________.
calcium, talc, copper
What are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?
oxygen and silicon
all rocks are made of
Evaporated water can leave behind the mineral _________.
a _________ is not a characteristic of minerals
random arrangement of atoms
how a mineral splits along a plane
The mineral galena breaks into tiny cubes. Why does this occur?
Its internal arrangement of atoms causes it to form a cube
Which mineral has a streak that is different from the visible color?
Which property is the most useful for identifying a mineral (one that is unlikely to change between specimens or types of minerals)?
Density is calculated by the _______________ of the mineral.
mass & volume
Which mineral reacts to the acid test?
What has a metallic luster and is 2.5 to 3 on the Mohs hardness scale?
Which formulas are correct? (You may have to rearrange the formula - select all that apply)
M = D x V
V = M/D
D = M/V
Hardness 7 on the Moh's scale of hardness (quartz) _______________________.
can be scratched with a drill bit
cannot be scratched with a penny easily
cannot be scratched with a steel knife easily
Using the Mohs hardness scale, give the hardness of the mineral that can only be scratched by a steel nail.
Which is an example of an extrusive igneous rock?
Where do plutonic rocks form?
in the earth below the ground
Andesitic magma ____________________________. (
forms at subduction boundaries
The silica content of igneous rock ___________________________.
increases as the sample of rock gets lighter in color
Very small crystals in an igneous rock shows that it was formed ________________________.
in a very short period of time
The amount of magnesium and iron ____________________________.
increases in mafic rocks
Of these igneous rocks, which would contain the largest crystals?
Granite is formed when magma cools slowly. Granite is a (an) ____________
intrusive igneous rock
Basaltic magma ____________________________
forms in rifts or oceanic hotspots
Rhyolitic magma ____________________________
has the highest silica content
What processes cause igneous rocks to form?
melting and solidification
Andesitic magma has ____________________
intermediate composition and formed at a subduction boundary
A volcanic neck is an igneous intrusion ________________.
left behind after a volcanic eruption and erosion
What causes the melting temperature of magma to increase?
increasing the magnesium content
Rhyolitic magma contains ________________.
>70% silica, 4-6% gases
A dike is a type of igneous intrusion that __________________.
squeezes in upward cracks in the bedrock,
pushes its way up through cracks in rock layers
Pumice is an example of a (an) ______________.
extrusive, vesicular igneous rock
Obsidian is unusual in that ___________________.
even though it is dark, it is considered a felsic rock due to the silica and quartz content
Why does rhyolite have smaller crystals than granite?
rhyolite cooled quicker than granite
Gabbro is all of the following choices except ______________
Mafic igneous rocks contain about ___________________
molten rock below ground
molten rock above ground
rocks that cool slowly have these
rocks that cool quickly have these
rocks that cool slowly then quickly
igneous rocks that form below ground
igneous rocks that form above ground
rocks that have more quartz and feldspar
rocks that have more magnesium and iron
a rock that is high in silicon
the process of clastic rocks getting "glued" together
A stream deposits its sediment into a lake. In what order would you find the three types of clastic sedimentary rocks, top layer to deepest layer?
shale, sandstone, conglomerate
The process of overlying weight compressing rocks together
Fossils are only found in __
Rock salt, gypsum, and chemical limestone are formed by
evaporation of water
If the rock particles are eroded and deposited, they may mix with dead organic matter to form _
organic sedimentary rock
Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by
clay, sand, or rocks being cemented together
The farther a sediment is transported, the _______________ the particle is.
A(n) ______________ is a rock that is formed by the precipitation of minerals after evaporation.
Horizontal layers of sediment are laid down in a process called
What type of sedimentary rock is coal?
There is a mineral that is common to both organic and chemical sedimentary rocks. Which is it?
____________ and silt are the two sediments that make up the sedimentary rock shale.
A ______________ is evidence of something that was once alive and is now in a rock layer.
What type of sedimentary rock is composed of seashells?
Which rock is very porous and water can sometimes go right through?
A sedimentary rock that can be made up of many whole igneous or metamorphic rocks is called _______________.
Sedimentary rock features include:
strata, footprints, fossils, ripple marks, geodes
What rock is formed due to the metamorphism of sandstone?
In the metamorphism of shale, increasing temperature and pressure changes shale from ____________ to ___________to _____________ and finally ____________
Slate, Phyllite, Schist, Gneiss
A wavy patterned rock has been __________________.
Non-foliated metamorphic rocks ______________________.
do not have foliation because there isn't enough pressure for the minerals to align themselves
What rock is formed due to the metamorphism of Limestone?
Foliated metamorphic rocks are formed due to _________________________
intense heat and pressure, regional metamorphism and crystals aligning in bands
Banding in metamorphic rocks shows a type of foliation called _______________
Metamorphic rocks are formed by ____________________________.
heat and pressure
Metamorphic rocks occur mostly along ________________.
convergent plate boundaries