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Flashcards in mini exam 2 Deck (68):
1

if you fell asleep on a sunny beach lying on your stomach then your dorsal side would likely be sunburned.

True

2

what are the tw parts of the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

3

together the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system make up the____ nervous system

peripheral

4

the somatic division of the nervous system carries signals from the ___ to the ___.

senses; central nervous system

5

which division of the nervous system consists of neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs

autonomic

6

which of the following means "toward the side, away from the midline"?

lateral

7

which plane shows the brain structures as they would be seen from the side?

sagittal

8

if one structure is on the left side of the body and the another is on the right, they are said to be ___ to each other.

contralateral

9

what is the name given to a cluster of neurons inside the CNS?

nucleus

10

what is the name given to a cluster of neurons outside the CNS?

ganglion

11

the cell bodies of sensory neurons that are in clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord are called?

dorsal root ganglia

12

according to the bell-magendie law;

ventral roots carry motor information while dorsal roots carry sensory information

13

after damage to the ventral roots of the spinal cord, an individual will suffer what kind of loss

control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area

14

a cross section of the spinal cord indicates that gray matter is;

densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites

15

which part of the nervous system prepares the body for "fight or flight" activities?

sympathetic

16

you are walking after dark. a sudden noise frightens you. your heart pounds, your pulse races, and your breathing rate increases. these responses are due to your:

sympathetic nervous system

17

what generally is the relationship between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems?

they usually have opposite effects on the same organ

18

digestive activity is increased by the activation of which branch of the autonomic nervous system?

the parasympathetic

19

which kinds of activities are produced from activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?

calmness and relaxation

20

the parasympathetic nervous system has;

long preganglionic and short postganlionic axons

21

what structures is composed of the medulla, pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures to the forebrain?

brain stem

22

acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter released by'

the parasympathetic nervous system's postganglionic axons

23

most of the postganglionic synapses of the sympathetic nervous system use

norepinephrine

24

given their effects on the nervous system, one side effect of over-the-counter cold remedies is increased;

heart rate

25

reflexive changes in hear rate and breathing when you are exercising for example, are regulated by which of the following

medulla

26

damage to which hindbrain structure would be most life-threatening

medulla

27

the pons acts as a bridge between

one side of the nervous systems and the other

28

the cranial nerve nuclei for servers ___ through ___ aren the medulla and pons

V; XII

29

vision is to ___ as hearing is to ___

cranial nerve II; cranial verve VIII

30

the ascending portion of the reticular formation sends outputs to

much of the cerebral cortex

31

the raphe system ___ the brains readiness to respond to stimuli, and sends axons to the ___

increases; forebrain

32

the cerebellum contributes to the control of what function?

movement

33

in which area of the brain would one find the tectum, tegmenjtum, superior and inferior colliculi and substantial nigra

midbrain

34

the limbic system is important for

emotional behaviors

35

damage to the thalamus would most likely result in

loss of sensory input to the cortex

36

sensory information which is not processed by the thalamus includes

olfactory information

37

although the pituitary is often called the master gland, its activity is regulated by the

s

38

which structure is likely to be damaged in parkinson's disease, Huntingtons disease, and other conditions that impair movement

basal ganglia

39

dory, the fish from the movie finding memo had trouble remembering things. she had to repeat things over and over to keep them in her short-term memory, or else the memories were lost. dory most likely had damage to which brain region

hippocampus

40

the ventricles, central canal, and subarachnoid space are all

filled with cerebrospinal fluid

41

the choroid plexus

forms the cerebrospinal fluid

42

membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord are called

meninges

43

cerebrospinal fluid is gradually reabsorbed in the ___ of the brain

subarachnoid space

44

a function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to

cushion the brain

45

hydrocephalus is usually associated with

an obstruction of the flow of CSF

46

each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex receives most of its input from ___ side of the body and controls the muscles on the ___ side

contralateral; contralateral

47

what do the corpus callousum and anterior commissure have in common

they both connect the two hemispheres

48

if you could selectively damage the individual laminae of the cortex, damage o which layer would most likely affect visual sensations

layer IV of the occipital cortex

49

which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most important for visual information

occipital

50

what is one important difference between people who are blind b/c of cortical blindness and others who are blind b/c of problems with their eyes

people with damage to their eyes can still imagine visual scenes

51

which part of the cerebral is most important for the sense of touch?

parietal lobe

52

the ___ monitors all the information about eye, hand, and body positions and passes it on to the brain areas that control movement

parietal lobe

53

which lobe contributes to perception of movement and recognition of faces?

temporal lobe

54

the "binding problem" is the issue of how we

perceive visual, auditory and other aspects of a stimulus as a single object

55

damage to the __ often causes people to lose their social inhibitors and to ignore the rules of polite conduct

prefrontal cortex

56

people with damage of parietal cortex tend to have trouble ___

locating objects in space

57

the study of relating skull anatomy (bumps and depressions) to behavior is known as

phrenology

58

computerized axial tomography creates an image from

x-rays

59

an MRI DEVICE CREATS AN IMAGE OF THE BRAIN BASED on

release of electromagnetic energy from atomic nuclei

60

an electroencephalograph measures

the average activity of the cells in a given region of the brain

61

which of the following brain imaging techniques measures faint magnetic fields

MEG

62

which of he following methods is dependent upon injection a radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?

PET

63

A Lesion is

an area that has been damaged

64

an ablation is

a brain area that has been removed

65

so far it appears that the brain features most strongly correlated with intelligence in humans is the

amount of gray matter

66

what type of brain slice is being shown in hw #3

sagittal

67

A pointing

dorsal root

68

c function is the ___ while the Es function is the ___

primary motor cortex; primary somatosensory cortex