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Flashcards in Minor Surgery Deck (111)
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1

_______ fluids of ALL patients should be considered infectious.

blood and bodily

2

_______ is the most frequently occurring work-related infectious disease.

Hepatitis B

3

Anesthetics are dividided into 2 groups:

esters and amides

4

2% Glutaraldehyde has a (low/high) tissue toxicity.

Low

5

Name 2 required universal precautions (OSHA):

Use barriers (gloves, ppe)
Sharps management

6

Use sterilization for _____, disinfecting for ______.

S - tools
D - living tissue

7

2% Glutaraldehyde takes how long to work?

10 mins to disinfect
10 hours to sterilize

8

Boiling can effectively sterilize at:

>30 mins

9

Dry heat can effectively sterilize at:

160C / 320F x1 hour

10

Autoclave rules:

15 psi at 121c for 15 mins

11

Intact skin can be disinfected with:

10% betadine x3
0.4% chlorhexidine gluconate

12

Why do we irrigate with normal saline instead of H2O2 or other antiseptics?

ineffective at disinfecting
slows wound healing
promotes tissue necrosis

13

If skin is punctured, and large items are still in the skin, you should:

Secure and refer

14

Let puncture wounds heal by ___ intention.

second or third - in case something is still inside

15

Dont suture wounds older than:

8-12 hours, up to 24 if very clean
24 hours on the face/neck (good blood supply)

16

If you can't rule out these kinds of damage, you should always refer:

nerve
tendon
vasculature
bone

17

Normal scar healing is called ______, while extending beyond the original area is called ________.

hypertrophic
keloid

18

Healing stages:

1 - hemostasis/coagulation
2 - inflammation
3 - proliferation (granulation)
4 - remodeling

19

Healing stages - Hemostasis is also called _______, and is characterized by _____ and formation of a _______.

coagulation
platelet aggregation
fibrin clot

20

Healing stages - Inflammation occurs on days ______. Cytokines are secreted by ________, complement cascade is triggered, and _______ arrive in 5-6 hours, staying 3-4 days to destroy bacteria.

1-4 (immediately)
platelets
neutrophils

21

Healing stages - Inflammation:
__________ remove dead neutrophils, necrotic tissue, and microbial pathogens on days _______.

macrophages
1-4

22

Healing stages - Inflammation:
re-epithelialization

fibroblasts and epithelial cells bridge across the wound, finished bridging by days 3-4

23

New keratinocytes proliferate ____ days after injury.

1-2

24

Neovascularization is:
And occurs during what healing phase?

angiogenesis, brings oxygen and nutrients
proliferative

25

Remodeling strength at 3-4 weeks:

30-40%

26

Remodeling strength at 1 year:

80%

27

Bromelain can help increase _______ formation.

collagen

28

Healing intention - primary:

suture a clean wound
bandage and let heal

29

Healing intention - secondary: full thickness, into subQ

left open, healed by granulation
used with significant tissue loss or contamination

30

Healing intention - tertiary:

without significant tissue loss -> clean, pack, cover, leave open 3-5 days, then suture if non-infected
* dog bite
* puncture with contaminated tool
> you may want to reopen if the skin starts healing over too soon