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With myocardial muscle function, Sodium is necessary?

help maintain fluid balance.


When does ESR decrease with MI and Infective Endocarditis?

When healing begins


What focuses on the body's balance of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium?

Serum Electrolytes tests


True or False, Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are necessary for myocardial muscle function?



True or False, Coagulation studies are not needed if an MI is diagnosed in case fibrinolytics are needed to dissolve the thrombus.

False. The coagulation studies, PT-INR-PTT are needed.


True or False, When the ESR is elevated with MI and Infective Endocarditis?



True or False, PET is able to accurately detect coronary artery disease, noninvasively, in an asymptomatic patient, prompting early intervention that can salvage potentially ischemic myocardium?



What is Cardioversion?

The restoration of the heart's normal sinus rhythm by delivery of a synchronized electric shock through two metal paddles placed on the patients chest


What is Myocardial Infarction

A heart attack.
Occurs because of plaque in the coronary arteries (CAD) leads to ischemia (lack of blood flow to the heart)


What are Coagulation studies useful in?

monitoring patients receiving anticoagulant drug therapy,

is prescribed for patients with myocardial infarction (MI)


True or False, Chronic Hypoxemia is often noted in HF?



What does a low hemoglobin indicate?

Decrease inability to carry oxygen to the cells and anemia


What does an elevated red blood cell (erythrocyte) count indicate?

The body is compensating for chronic hypoxemia
(an abnormal deficiency of oxygen in the arterial blood)


What lab test detects growth of bacteria in the blood that is crucial in the diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis?

Blood Cultures.


What is Thallium Scanning?

The radio-isotope is injected IV while patient exercises on a treadmill or while using Rx stressor meds

Thallium 201 is an intracellular ion that is transported into normal cells.

Tissues with inadequate perfusion appear as dark areas on scanning.


In patient who cannot tolerate physical activity, what medication given prior to the thallium to physiologically simulate exercise-induce stress.



What is Echocardiography used for?

to detect pericardial effusion
(collection of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac),
Ventricular function,
Cardiac chamber size and shape,
Ventricular muscle and septal motion and thickness,
Cardiac output (ejection fraction),
Cardiac tumors,
Valvular function, and congenital heart disorder.


True or False, PETs ability to distinguish between viable and nonviable myocardial tissue allows physicians to identify the most appropriate candidates for bypass surgery or angioplasty?



What is PET used for?

*Has proven merit in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease.


What is Position Emission Tomography (PET)?

computerized radiographic technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the metabolic activity of various body structures.


What does the "QRS" complex represent?

depolarization of the ventricles.


What does the "T" represent?

repolarization of the ventricles.


What does the "P" represent?

depolarization of the atria.


What is Repolarization?

when the heart is in the relaxation phase.


What are the post nursing interventions for Cardiac Catheterization and Angiography?

1) Assess circulation to the extremity
2) Check peripheral pulses, color, and sensation of the extremity every 15 minutes for 1 hour then with decreasing frequency.
3) Observe the puncture site for hematoma and bleeding.
4) Monitor vital signs.
5) Assess for abnormal heart rate, dysrhythmias, and signs of pulmonary emboli (respiratory difficulty)
6) Lay the patient supine for a designated period
7) Apply a compression device over the pressure dressing at the insertion site to prevent hemorrhage.


How is the Cardiac Catheterization done?

1. It is performed under sterile surgical conditions
2. Its invasive nature requires a prior signed consent.
3. Contrast dye may be injected to allow better heart and vessel visualization (angiography)
3. Determine sensitivity to iodine to avoid an allergic reaction to dye


What is the purpose of a Cardiac Catheterization?

aids in the diagnosis of cardiac conditions, and in eval /treatment of the critically ill.

used to measure
1) pressure within the heart and
2) blood volume relationship to cardiac competence.
Vulvar defects, arterial occlusion and congenital anomalies are determined.
Blood samples are taken


What is a Cardiac Monitor?

displays information on the electrical activity of the heart

transferred via conductive electrodes place on the chest.


What is a Holter Monitor and why is it used

portable recorder is attached to the patient by leads, with a 2-pound tape recorder carried on a belt or shoulder strap.
The monitor operates continuously to record the patterns and rhythms of the patient's heartbeat. In conjunction with the diary, the physician can note various events, times, and medications peaks that affect or precipitate dysrhythmias.


True or False. Each ECG has five distinct waves or deflections.

False. Each ECG has THREE distinct waves or deflections.
1. The "P" wave
2. The "QRS" complex
3. The "T" wave