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High Medieval Europe: 1000-1350 & The Renaissance > Misc. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc. Deck (33):

Cathars and Waldensians

- two great heresies that flourished in the late 12th and first half of the 13th century (souther France, especially Languedoc, northern Italy, parts of Germany)
- Waldensians wished to renounce worldly possessions, demanded for lay people to be able to preach, didn't break irrevocably from the church
- Cathars rejected the Old Testament and the Trinity in favour of dualism


Truce of God

- 1027
- attempted to limit the days of the week and times of the year that nobility engaged in violence


St. Anselm

- 1023-1109
- used plain concepts and ordinary language to explain the central beliefs of Christianity


Peter Lombard

- c. 1096-1164
- student of Peter Abelard
- baptism
- confirmation
- communion
- confession
- marriage
- New Orders
- Extreme Unction


Peace of God

- 989
- sought to protect ecclesiastical property, agricultural resources, and unarmed clerics
- excommunication was the threat


The Albigensian Crusade

- 1209-1229
- one of Pope Innocent III's representatives was murdered by a Cathar
- Innocent III called on Philip Augustus to crush the local nobles who were harbouring heretics
- Philip didn't attack directly but allowed his vassals in the north to invade the south
- after 20 years of brutal war, the crusade reduced the area to French control


Order of Friars Minor

- started by Francis Bernardone (St. Francis)
- approved by Innocent III in 1210


The Dominican Friars

- founded by Saint Dominic
- originally planned to be a missionary for the Baltic pagans but when passing through the Cathar region of southern France, he chose to found an organization of "learned and righteous men" who competed with the heretics
- in 1215, Innocent III allowed him to establish a new Order of Preachers


The Energizing Myth

- what the art historian Erwin Panovsky and intellectual historian Federico Chabod saw as the critical element in defining the Renaissance: the Italian's belief that they were different and separated from the values and styles of the Middle Ages


Revolt of the Medievalists

- medieval historians rejected the sharply-divided periods of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and the "barbarianism" of the centuries just prior to the 14th century
- *Haskins* *Thorndike* *Sarton*


The Babylonian Captivity

- the papacy was moved to Avignon between 1309 and 1377 by the will and manipulation of Philip the Fair, king of France


The Reform Papacy

- since approx. 750, the popes had been left as feudal rulers of central Italy. As a result, local noble families vied for control of the papacy by appointing their own, often unworthy relatives, as pope
- by 1044, these factions caused a great scandal with the appointment of two rival popes
- in 1046, Emperor Henry III intervened to end the scandal and brought the northern reform movement to Rome
- Henry summoned a council of bishops which deposed and exiled both popes
- Henry III appointed the next succession of four popes, all reforming church men from north of the Alps


Clash of Gregory VII and Henry IV

- in 1074, the emperor and pope clashed over the appointment of the next archbishop of the troubled city of Milan
- in 1075, Gregory VII issued a decree against lay investiture, which denied even kings and emperors their traditional right to invest bishops and abbots
- Henry IV threatened to depose and replace the pope
- Gregory VII threatened to depose the emperor
- in 1076, Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV
- Henry IV's subjects and vassals were freed from their oaths of loyalty to him
- the pope again excommunicated Henry IV in 1080
- Henry IV marched on Rome, forcing Gregory VII to retreat to Salerno where he died



- a Spanish Muslim who took a strongly Aristotelian stance and accepted the Greek's teaching about an eternal universe and the mortality of the soul, arguing that Islam's holy book, the Qur'an, had been written for common people and only approximated the truths that Aristotle's rational system explained more accurately
- later same-line thinkers are referred to Averroists


Scholastic strategies for assimilating Aristotle

- philosophy professor Siger of Brabant argued for two paths to the same truth
- these theologians clung to Augustine's Christian Neoplatonism, which emphasized faith over reason
- *St. Bonaventure*: Franciscan scholar
- he did not reject all of Aristotle's teachings
- emphasized the importance of intuitive knowledge and the need for goodwill in order to gain truth
- greatly influenced Franciscan spirituality
- chose a middle position on the questions on how to assimilate Aristotle
- confident that faith and reason must lead to the same conclusions because truth is one
- leading proponent was the Dominican scholar, *Thomas Aquinas*


Thomas Aquinas

- Dominican scholar who distinguished between religious truths that were discovered by natural reason, and truths which could only be known if revealed by divine grace
- used Aristotelian knowledge and methodology to correct Aristotle's conclusions that contradicted Christian revelation
- produced two large "summaries" or summae (a summa was a systematic discussion of a topic that arranged, explained, and harmonized authoritative statements in logical order


Robert Grosseteste (d. 1253) and Friar Roger Bacon (d. 1294)

- realized the problem that:
Scholasticism focused on the study, interpretation, and harmonization of the ancient (and Arabic) writings that provided the "data" for scholarly speculation and discussion, even when such observations were flawed or contradicted what medieval people had observed
- forward looking to development of scientific method but held back


13th-century onward medieval misogyny

- Greek learning and scholastic culture exacerbated rather than enlightened medieval misogyny
- women in ancient Athens had been barred from public and intellectual life



- the ultimate scholastic synthesis of faith and reason, and Aristotelianism with the Augustinian tradition of Catholicism
- became the official teaching of the Dominican Friars
- revived in 1879 and became the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church



- accepting two paths to the same truth


The Capetian Dynasty

- gradually grew in strength by adding wealthy territories to the royal domain through marriage and conquest, and by ensuring that the king donated the feudal nobles and aristocrats within his domain
- enjoyed steady growth because of luck: fathers passed down titles and land to sons without interruption of civil war
- Philip Augustus annexed most of the Angevin Empire, Louis VIII intervened in the protracted Albigensian Crusade and thereby extended his rule over much of southern France
- Louis IX, with the help of his great mother, established his reputation as the model for Christian kingship


Frederick II

- grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa
- his father, Henry VI, only ruled for a few years before he died in 1197
- was set to inherit the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Germany, and to claim the title of Emperor
- though savvy and quirky, the papacy's maneuvers (deposing, excommunicating, threatening a crusade) destabilized the empire and thwarted Hohenstaufen hopes of establishing a centralized monarchy


Louis IX

- respected as the perfect Christian king, despite two failed crusades
- had opposition at the beginning of his inheritance, as his mother was foreign (Spanish) and he was but a child
- him and his mother were nearly crushed by Count Peter of Brittany, but Count Tibald of Champagne showed up with 300 knights



- the rounded front of a basilica which was the focus of worship around the altar under which a saint might be buried, and around which clergy worshipped and performed rituals



- the sideways section added to the original Roman Basilica to accommodate a larger congregation in the Romanesque Basilicas
- changed the original floor plan to the shape of a cross


Gothic style

- pointed arch
- groin vaulting (later ribbed arches) to support ceilings
- flying buttresses
- large, stained glass windows
- very tall ceilings


Gothic cathedrals

- pride of the communities
- often took generations to complete
- royal and noble patrons would often donate money for the most important windows
- often the guilds would include a window depicting their trade
- burghers as well as nobles paid for the building and decorating of the church
- pilgrims would also contribute to cathedral construction, esp. if there were relics with a reputation for working cures and miracles


rose window

- large stained glass window in the shape of a rose with saints, angels, and other figures depicted in the petals


The four senses when "reading" the meaning of liturgy, church buildings, an its art

1. Historical or literal sense:
- when the words describe an actual event
2. Allegorical sense:
- when what is said literally has another meaning spiritually
3. Tropological sense:
- correction of manners or moral speech
4. Anagogical sense:
- speech that leads to higher things or things above the heavens


Crises of the first half of the fourteenth century

- by the end of the 13th century, the population had reached the limit of what medieval agricultural technology could support, and land was short in supply
- outbreaks of disease among livestock
- the Black Death
- see the "Hundred Years War"
- see the "renewal of the Investiture Controversy"


The Hundred Years War

- for 300 years the Capetian dynasty had slowly extended its sway over France, but after the death of the great Philip IV The Fair in 1314, the dynasty's luck ran out. One after another, his 3 sons and grandson died
- Philip's nephew, Philip of Valois (Philip VI), inherited the crown, initiating the troubled Valois dynasty
- Philip the Fair also had a daughter, Isabel, who, after marrying King Edward II, bore Edward III
- when Edward III came of age, he claimed to be the rightful heir of the French crown
- this was likely a bid to force the Valois king to make concessions over Edward's territories in France, but his successors continued to use the claim as a justification for war


the Jacquerie

- English armies during the 1337-60 section of the Hundred Years War ravaged the French countryside, emptying the merger stores of peasants and menacing their wives and daughters
- French peasants had to pay to support their inept lords to ransom those who were captured, and to rebuild the towns after the English had passed
- rebellion started in 1357, where peasants attacked manors and viciously killed their lords, but there was too little coordination and the rebellion was brutally suppressed


renewal of the Investiture Controversy

- turn of the 14th century
- to pay for the costs of larger government and esp. for their wars in the 1290s, the kingdoms of England and France attempted to tax the clergy
- pope Boniface VIII intervened in 1296 not only to protect clergy from royal taxation, but also to strengthen his authority over kings and because he needed to tax the clergy himself to pay for his growing government and projects
- Philip IV was counselled by advisors well-versed in Roman law--law that considered the ruler to be the absolute sovereign
- Philip IV pressed his claims by arresting a French bishop, provoking Boniface to assert the supremacy of popes over secular rulers in 1302
- in 1303, royal agents, allied with the pope's Italian enemies, arrested Boniface and roughed him up