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High Medieval Europe: 1000-1350 & The Renaissance > Popes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Popes Deck (10):

Urban VI

- the pope forcefully elected by Roman nobles after the papacy returned to Rome
- one of the two popes ("Clement VII" was the other) during the Great Schism


Martin V

- the pope elected after the Great Schism
- although elected in 1417, he couldn't return to Rome until 1420 because it was too unsafe
- he laid the foundation of the Renaissance papacy


Alexander VI

- Rodrigo Borgia
- had some positive contributions: he rebuilt the city to a degree, balanced the papal budget, and subdued the violent noble families, imposing order
- he exploited the church and sold everything it had to offer
- his son, Cesare, was notorious for his ruthless attempt to carve out a Borgia kingdom in central Italy


Julius II

- the warrior pope, "Papa Terrible"
- like Alexander VI, he sold church offices at great profit
- built the League of Cambrai to destroy Venice
- joined sides with Venice after realizing Italy was vulnerable to northern invaders, creating the "Italian Holy League"
- one of the most lavish and daring patrons of the arts (Raphael, Michelangelo)
- two goals: 1. to expel foreign armies from Italy, 2. further rebuilding and beautification of the Vatican and the city of Rome


Leo X

- one of the two Medici popes
- son of the famous Lorenzo de'Medici
- centred his court on luxury, learning, music, and art
- was pope during Martin Luther's theses posting
- recreated University of Rome


Innocent III

- r. 1198-1216
- notable for his uses of interdict to keep princes in line
- leader of the Fourth Lateran Council
- increased punishment of convicted heretics at Fourth Lateran Council


Leo IX

- the longest running pope appointed by Henry III
- sought to make the papacy the moral leader of Christendom
- travelled to France and Germany to lead reforming councils


Nicholas II

- decreed in 1059 that new popes would be elected by the cardinal-bishops


Paul III

- patron of Michelangelo and others
- launched the Counter-Reformation
- called the Council of Trent


Nicholas V

- saw the fall of Constantinople to the Turks and the end of the Hundred Years War
- sought to make Rome the home of literature and art
- strengthened fortifications, restored aqueducts, and rebuilt many churches