Saggital plane motions
Ex. Side lateral raise, side lunge, side shuffle
Frontal plane motions
Ex. Biceps curl, triceps pushdown, squat
Transverse plane motions
Ex. Throwing, golfing, swinging a bat, trunk rotation
extension at the ankle
flexion at the ankle
movement in the frontal plane toward the middle
movement in the frontal plane away from the middle
rotation toward the middle of the body
rotation away from the middle of the body
The muscle action spectrum
Concentric, Eccentric, Isometric
muscle shortens, “on the way out”
Muscle lengthens, “on the way back in”
ability to produce and reduce force and stabilize kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
soft tissue models along the lines of stress
neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause the muscles to contract; provides inhibitory effect to muscle spindles
simultaneous contractor of one muscle and relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement.
tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance
Altered reciprocal inhibition
muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
inappropriate muscle takes over function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
Five phases of Optimum Performance Training (OPT) model
2) strength endurance
4) max strength
cumulative sensory input from al mechano receptors that sense position and limb movements
Essential amino acids
8 amigos that cannot be manufactured by the body
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
amount of energy expended during rest
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
additional energy use for digestion, 6-10% of total energy expenditure
Energy expended during physical activity
around 20% of total energy expenditure
Calculate max HR
YMCA step test
96 steps per minute on 12 inch step for 3 min.
Rockport walk test
walk 1 mile on treadmill, record time/HR
Systolic-pressure within the arteries when heart contracts
Diastolic- pressure in the arteries when the heart is resting
30 BMI or greater
Skin-fold measurement sites
3) sub scapular
4) iliac crest
ALL ON RIGHT SIDE
Circumference measurement sites
divide the waist circumference measurement by the hip measurement. **Ratios greater than .80 for woman, .95 for man are at increased risk.
6 Performance assessments
Davies Shark skill Bench press Squat test Push-up test LEFT test
upper extremity stability and agility
lower extremity stability and agility
Bench press test
estimates 1 rep max on overall upper body strength of pressing musculature
estimates 1 rep squat max and overall lower body strength.
measures muscular endurance of the upper body primarily pushing muscles
assesses agility, acceleration, deceleration, and neuromuscular control
avoid power and speed assessments
Obesity- preferred cardio assessment
lockport walk test is preferred cardio assessment
increases joint ROM, improves muscle imbalances, and corrects altered joint motion, autogenic inhibition, use for phase 1 training
improves extensibility of soft tissue and increases neuromuscular efficiency, reciprocal inhibition, use for phase 2, 3, 4 training.
maintains integrated, mulitplanar soft tissue extensibility and optimal neuromuscualar control, full ROM, use for phase 5 training
gentle pressure breaks up knots within muscle and helps release unwanted tension, autogenic inhibition
passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds, autogenic inhibition
uses agonists and synergists to dynamically move joints into a range of motion; reciprocal inhibition.
uses force production and momentum to move joints through full range of motion; reciprocal inhibition
one set of each exercise, good for beginners
multiple sets of each exercise
increasing (or decreasing) weight with each set
performing two exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest between.
perform a set to failure, remove small percentage of load, then continue with set.
performing a series of exercises, one after the other with minimal rest between them.
Peripheral heart action
variation of circuit training, alternates upper and lower body exercises to improve circulation.
breaking the body up into parts to be trained on separate days.
performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other, in a vertical manner down the template.
performing all sets for an exercise or body part before moving on to the next
Resistance- stabilization exercises
4/2/1 tempo, low weight/high reps in an unstable but controllable environment
Ex. Ball squat, curl to press, multiplanar step-up balance, curl to overhead press, push-up, standing cable row, ball dumbbell row, single-leg dumbbell scaption, seated stability ball military press, single leg dumbbell curl, single leg barbell curl, supine ball dumbbell triceps extension, ball squat, multiplayer step-up to balance