Misc. Fundamentals Flashcards Preview

CAPSTONE REVIEW > Misc. Fundamentals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc. Fundamentals Deck (35):


Isolation Precautions

Protect against droplet infections smaller than 5mcg and that remain airborne (larger droplets fall).

"My Chicken Hez TB" & VRSA

  • Measles
  • Chicken Pox
  • Herpes zoster
  • TB
  • VRSA


  • Standard precautions
  • Negative pressure room (private)
  • Mask (n-95 for TB)
  • VRSA includes contact precautions


Cane Walking

C - Cane
O - Opposite
A - Affected
L - Leg



Isolation Precautions

Contact precautions protect visitors and caregivers (when they are within 3ft of the client) against direct client and environmental contact infections


  • MRSA (VRSA requires airborne precautions)
  • RSV
  • Skin infections (herpes zoster, cutaneous diphtheria, impetigo, pediculosis, scabies, staph)
  • Wound infections
  • Enteric infections (C-Diff)
  • Eye infections (conjunctivitis)


  • Gown, gloves, goggles, private room


Crutch Walking

"Step Up"

When going up stairs, the good leg goes first, followed by crutches, then affected leg. (The opposite when going down stairs.)




RNs do not delegate what they can EAT

E - Evaluate
A - Assess
T - Teach

Considerations include: 

  • Predictability of outcome
  • Potential for harm
  • Complexity of care
  • Need for problem-solving and innovation
  • Level of interaction with client (need for psychosocial support or education)



Isolation Precautions

Droplet precautions protect against droplets larger than 5mcg and travel 3 to 6 ft from the client.


  • Sepsis
  • Scarlet Fever
  • Strep
  • Pertussis
  • Pneumonia
  • Parvovirus
  • Influenza
  • Diphtheria
  • Epiglottitis
  • Rubella
  • Mumps
  • Adenovirus


  • Private room, mask


Latex Allergies

Clients that are allergic to the following may be at risk for a latex allergy:

Bananas, Apricots, Cherries, Grapes, Kiwis, Passion Fruit, Avocados, Chestnuts, Tomatoes, and/or Peaches


Fowler's Position

  • Pt is supine with HOB at 45o
  • Frequently used during procedures such as NG tube insertion and suctioning
  • Allows for better chest expansion and ventilation




Side-Lying Position

  • Pt lies on side with most of the weight on the dependent hip and shoulder.
  • Good sleeping position, but the client must be turned regularly to prevent development of pressure ulcers on the dependent areas.
  • A 30o lateral position is recommended for clients at risk for pressure ulcers.


Modified Trendelenburg Position

  • Client remains flat with legs elevated above the level of the heart.
  • This position is used to prevent and treat hypovolemia and facilitates venous return.


Order of Assessment

I - Inspect
P - Palpate
P - Percuss
A - Auscultate

EXCEPT with the abdomen:

I - Inspect
A - Auscultate
P - Percuss
P - Palpate


High Fowler's Position

  • Pt is supine with HOB at 90o
  • Promotes lung expansion by lowering diaphragm; used for clients experiencing dyspnea


Orthopneic Position

  • Pt sits in the bed or at the bedside. A pillow is placed on the over-bed table, which is placed across the client’s lap. The client rests his arms on the over-bed table.
  • Position allows for chest expansion and is especially beneficial to clients who have COPD.


Prone Position

  • Pt lies flat on abdomen with head to one side
  • Position promotes drainage from the mouth but inhibits chest expansion


Reverse Trendelenburg

  • The entire bed is tilted with the foot of the bed lower than the head of the bed.
  • This position promotes gastric emptying and prevents esophageal reflux.



  • Pt is supine with HOB at 30o
  • Often used to prevent regurgitation and/or aspiration




Semi-Prone Position

  • Pt on side halfway between lateral and prone positions. (Weight is on the anterior ileum, humerus, and clavicle.)
  • The lower arm is behind the client while the upper arm is in front. Both legs are flexed, but the upper leg is flexed at a greater angle than the lower leg at the hip as well as at the knee.
  • Comfortable sleeping position for many clients
  • Promotes oral drainage.




Dorsal Recumbent

  • Pt is on back with head and shoulders elevated slightly on a pillow


Trendelenburg Position

  • The entire bed is tilted with the head of the bed lower than the foot of the bed.
  • This position is used during postural drainage, and it facilitates venous return.


The Joint Commission

Regulatory agency that sets quality standards for the accreditation of health care facilities


Preventative Health Care

Focuses on educating and equipping clients to reduce and control risk factors of disease.

Examples include: programs that promote immunizations, stress management, and seat belt use.


Primary Health Care

Emphasizes health promotion, and includes prenatal and well-baby care, nutrition counseling, and disease control.  Requires a sustained partnership btwn the client and provider.

Examples include: office or clinic visits and scheduled school or work-centered screenings (visions, hearing, etc.)


Secondary Health Care

Includes the diagnosis and treatment of emergency, acute illness, or injury.

Examples include: care that is given in hospital settings, diagnostic centers, or emergent care centers.


Tertiary Health Care

Involves the provision of specialized, highly technical care.

Examples include: oncology centers and burn centers.


Restorative Health Care

Involves intermediate follow-up care for restoring health. 

Examples include: home health care, rehabilitation centers, and skilled nursing facilities.


Continuing Health Care

Designed to address long-term or chronic health care needs.

Examples include: hospice, adult day care, and in-home respite care.


Death: Formal Definitions

Death is determined by one of two criteria:

1. An irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions

2. Irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem


Based on the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA)


Informed Consent: The Nurse's Role

  • Witnesses the informed consent
  • Ensure that the provider gave necessary info
  • Ensure that client understood info given
  • Have client sign informed consent form
  • Notify provider if client has questions, doubts, or seems unclear -- it is the provider's responsibility to give clarification
  • Documents questions, reinforcement of teaching, the use of an interpretor


Mandated Reporting

  • Suspicion of abuse: child, elder, domestic violence
  • Communicable diseases (via health dept. protocols) -- there are 60+ reportable commincable diseases as defined by the CDC



S - Subjective Data

O - Objective Data

A - Assessment (& nursing diagnosis)

P - Plan

I - Intervention

E - Evaluation





Portability &





Primary Prevention

Addresses the needs of healthy clients to promote health and prevent disease with specific protections.


Examples include:

  • immunization programs,
  • child car seat education,
  • nutrition and fitness activities,
  • health education in schools.


Secondary Prevention

Focuses on early identification of individuals or communities experiencing illness, providing treatment, and conducting activities that are geared to prevent a worsening health status

Examples include:

  • Communicable disease screening and case finding
  • Early detection and tx of diabetes
  • Exercise programs for older adult clients who are frail


Tertiary Prevention

Aims to prevent the long-term consequences of a chronic illness or disability and to support optimal functioning.

Examples include:

  • Prevention of pressure ulcers as a complication of spinal cord injury
  • Promoting independence for the client who has traumatic brain injury


Middle adults (35-65) typically experience decreases in ...

  • Skin turgor and moisture
  • Subcutaneous fat
  • Melanin in hair (graying)
  • Hair
  • Visual acuity
  • Sense of taste
  • Skeletal muscle mass
  • Height
  • Calcium / bone density
  • Blood vessel elasticity
  • Respiratory vital capacity
  • Large intestine muscle tone
  • Gastric secretions
  • Estrogen / testosterone
  • Glucose tolerance
  • Reaction time