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Flashcards in Misc Information Deck (29)
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Modifited Ashworth Scale 

Measures spasticity

0 = no increase in muscle tone

1 = sightl increase in tone (catch/release, min resistance at EROM)

1+ = slight incrase in tone (catch folowed by min resistance for remainder (less than 1/2) of ROM)

2 = more marked increase in tone through most of ROM

3 = considerable incrase in tone, PROM difficult

4 = rigid in flexion or extension


Purpose of semicircular canals

responsd to movement of head motion


Purpose of otolith organs

Measure effects of gravity and movement with regard to acceleration/decceleration



vestibulo-occular reflex

- allows to head/eye coordination

- supports gaze stability



vestibulospinal reflex

- attempt to stabilize body/control movement

- assists with stabiltiy while head is moveing 

- coordinates trunk during upright posture


Atomatic Postural Strategies

1. Ankle: 1st used, small range, slow velocity perturbation, distal to proximal contraction at ankle to control sway

2. Hip: greater force challenge or perturbation through hip/pelvis, hips move opposite the head, proximal to distal contraction to counteract LOB

3. Suspensory: lower COG during standing/ambulation for better control

4. Stepping: unexpected challenge/perturbation during static standing that place COG outside BOS, LE step, UE reach


Peripheral Vertigo (4)

1. Episodic/short duration

2. Automic symptoms present

3. Precipitating factor

4. Pallor, sweat, N/V, auitory fullness, tinnitus


Causes of Peripheral Vertigo


2. Meniere's disease

3. Infection/Trauma/Tumor

4. Metabolic diosders

5. Acute alcohol intoxication


Central Vertigo (3)

1. Autonomic symptoms less severe

2. Loss of consciousness can occur

3. diplopia, hemianopsia, weakness, numbness, ataxia, dysarthria


Causes of Central Vertigo (5)

1. Meningitis

2. Mingraine HA

3. Ear infection/Trauma/Tumor

4. Cerebellar degernation disorders

5. MS


BPPV most commonly affects which canal?



Spontaneous Nystagmus

1. Caused by imbalance of vestibular signals

2. Due to acute vestibular lesions, lasts 24 hours


Peripheral nystagmus

Occurs with peripheral vestibular lesion and is inhibitis when the patient fixates their vision on an objects


Central nystagmus

Occus with a central lesion of the brainstem/cerebellus and is not inhibited by visual fixation on an object


Positional nystagmus

1. Induced by change in head position

2. Semicircular canals stimulate the nystagmus, typically only lasts a few seconds


Gazed evoked nystagmus

1. occurs when the eyes shift from a primary to alternate position

2. caused by inability to maintain stable gaze

3. indicative of CNS pathology such as TBI and MS


Central vs. Peripheral Nystagmus

1. Direction

2. Visual Fixation

3. Vertgio

4. Length of symptoms

5. Etiology

1. C = bi/unilateral, P = unilateral with fast movement opp side of lesion

2. C = no inhibitation, P = inhibit nystagmus and vertigo

3. C = mild, P = significant

4. C = may be chronic, P = min, day, week, finite period, recurring

5. C = demyelination, vascular, cancer/tumor, P = meniere's, vascular, trauma, toxicity, infection of inner ear


Fluent Aphasia (5)

1. Frequently involves temporal lobe

2. Word ouput/speech production functional

3. Rhythmic but empty speech, lacks substance, 

4. Use paraphasia and neologisms

5. Types: Wernicke's, Conduction


Non-fluent Aphasia (5)

1. Frequently involves frontal lobe

2. Poor word output and articulation

3. Dysprosodic speech with content present and syntatical words impaired

4. Increased effort for speech

5. Types: Broca's, Global, Verbal Apraxia, Dysarthria


Wernicke's (Receptive) Aphasia (4)

1. Lesion in posterior region of superior temporal gyrus

2. Comprehension impaired

3. Good articulation with paraphasias

4, Impaired writing and naming ability


Conduction Aphasia (4)

1. Lesion in supramarginal gyrus or arcuate fasciculus

2. Intact fluency, comprehension, and reading

3. Severe impairment with repetition

4. Impaired writing and word finding


Broca's (Expressive) Aphasia (4)

1. Lesion in 3rd convolution of frontal lobe

2. Intact auditory/reading comprehension

3. Impaired repetition and naming skills, paraphasias common

4. Frustration of language skills


Wernicke's vs. Broca's Aphasia: Motor impairment

Wernicke: not typical due to distance of lesion from motor cortex

Broca: typical due to proximity to motor cortex


Global Aphasia (4)

1. Lesion in frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes

2. Impaired comprehension, maing, writing, and repetition skills

3. May involuntarily verbalize without correct context

4. May use nonverbal skills to communicate 


Verbal Apraxia (4)

1. Lesion in (left) frontal lobe adjacent to Broca's area

2. Impaired prospody and articulation of speech

3. Verbal expression impaired due to deficits in motor planning

4. Understand what is needed to initial speech but unable 



Dysarthria (4)

1. Due to an UMN lesion

2. Inabiltiy of muscle to articulate words/sounds

3. Speech may appeared slurred

4. May affect respiratory/phonatory systmes due to weakness


Cerebral Angiography

Invasive procedure, with contrast die, and a series of xrays

Diagnose potential CVA, brain tumor, aneurysm, or vascular malformation



Computed tomography (CT)

Brain scan providing cross section images

Can use contrast dies

Used to identify vascular malformations, tumors, cysts, herniated disks, hemorrhage, epilepsy, encephalitis, spinal stenosis, intracranial bleeding, and head injury



Invasive procedure, with contrast dye and CT scan

Used to evaluate pathology of spinal disk