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Flashcards in Misrepresentation 1 Deck (20):


False statement of fact which induced the other party to enter into a contract.


Legal source of misrepresentation:

Misrepresentation Act 1967


What does it mean when a contract is rendered voidable?

Can be set aside by one party using rescission. Once set aside it is treated like it never existed.


What does it mean when a contract is rendered void?

Automatically of no effect from the very beginning.


Silence does not amount to misrepresentation:

No general duty in pre-contractual negotiations to state facts not known to the other party

Keates v Cadogan


Exceptions to the rule that silence does not amount to misrepresentation:

Half truth
Change of circumstances


What is a Half Truth?

True statement that fails to represent entire picture.

Dimmock v Hallet


Change of circumstance:

Statement was true at first, but becomes false due to a change of circumstance.
WIth v O'flanagan


What do not count as statements of fact?

- Statements of belief or opinion
- Statements of future conduct/ intention
- Abstract statements of the law


An opinion is not a statement of fact:

Not deemed a factual statement when both parties know that the statement maker has no basis in fact.

Bisset v Wilkinson


Exceptions to the rule that an opinion is not a statement of fact:

Statement maker is in a stronger position to know the truth.

Smith v Land and House Property Corporation


Statement of future conduct is not a statement of fact:

A false statement made regarding future intentions is not misrepresentation.


If they lied about it (evidence required) then it is misrepresentation.

Edgington v Fitzmaurice


Abstract statements of law are not statements of fact:

Cannot be statement of fact.


Statements of law applied to a set of facts will be construed as statements of fact.

Pankhania v Hackney London Borough Council



Coercing/ persuading another party into entering a contract.


Inducement must be material:

Important enough to influence reasonable person,

Downs v Chappel


If a claimant makes his/ her own investigations:

Then they are not induced by misrepresentation.
Attwood v Small


Attwood v Small only has application where parties rely solely on their own investigations.


With v O'Flanagan

Where a statement is rendered false by a change of circumstance, there is a duty to disclose the change.


Dimmock v Hallett

Defendant selling some land, tells buyer that all farms were under tenancy. Defendant failed to disclose that tenants had given their notice.

It was held that telling half truths about the tenants constitutes grounds for unwinding the contracts.


Edgington v Fitzmaurice

Company was selling shares under the guise of expanding the company, when they were really being used to settle debts.

It was held, that although it was a statement of future intent, it was an actionable misrep as the defendant has no intention of expanding the company.


Smith v Land and House Property Corporation

Claimant bought a hotel which seller described as 'most desirable'. The seller knew that the tenant was
nearly bankrupt and neglected to inform the buyer

It was held that the statement was one of fact rather than opinion as the seller was in a strong position to know the truth..