Mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation Flashcards Preview

YEAR 1: MCD - Metabolism > Mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation Deck (11)
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1

What type of genome do mitochondria have?

Circular molecule of DNA

2

What Krebs' Cycle enzyme is located in the mitochondrial membrane and why is it positioned there?

Succinate Dehydrgenase – allows communication with coenzyme Q

3

Describe the action of cytochrome oxidase

Cytochrome oxidase receives two electrons from cytochrome C Once it has 4 electrons in total, it transfers the four electrons along with 4 protons to Oxygen generating 2H2O

4

Describe the structure of ATP Synthase.

ATP Synthase has a F0 region (transmembrane)
And a F1 region (protruding into the matrix)
F0 consists of subunits = a, b + c
F1 consists of subunits = , +
Alpha and beta subunits CANNOT rotate because they are fixed in position by a + b subunits

5

How do redox potentials show that the ETC is energetically favourable?

Each successive membrane complex or carrier has a more positive redox potential than the previous – this means transfer of electrons from one complex to the next is energetically favourable

6

How does ATP synthase generate ATP?

The gamma subunit rotates forcing the beta subunits to undergo conformational changes which alters their affinities for ADP and ATP Torsional energy flows from the catalytic subunit to the ADP and inorganic phosphate to promote formation of ATP

7

How does cyanide act as a metabolic poison?

Cyanide binds to Fe3+ in the cytochrome oxidase complex and blocks the flow of electrons through the ETC and consequently, the production of ATP

8

How does malonate act as a metabolic poison?

Competitive Inhibitor of Succinate Dehydrogenase– slows down the flow of electrons from succinate to ubiquinone by inhibiting the oxidation of succinate to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase

9

How does oligomycin act as a metabolic poison?

Binds to the stalk of ATP synthase and inhibits oxidative phosphorylation It blocks the flow of protons through ATP synthase and so causes a backlog of protons in the intermembrane space. The intermembrane space eventually becomes saturated with protons meaning that protons can no longer be pumped into the space by the ETC components. This means that the flow of electrons through the ETC, and hence respiration, stops.

10

How does dinitrophenol act as a metabolic poison?

Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production by transporting protons across the mitochondrial membrane

11

What is non-shivering thermogenesis?

Thermogenin (UCP-1) channel can be activated in response to a drop in body temperature – like DNP, it allows protons to bypass ATP synthase thereby releasing heat from the dissipation of the proton gradient