Flashcards in Mklty Deck (35):
Acting in self interest doesn't always lead to the best consequences
The free rider problem
Someone who reaps the benefits of morality but doesn't bear the cost if acting morally - objection to the view that acting morally is in self interest
Self I interest is getting what you would want if you were completely rational
Power is invested in an all mighty sovereign who keeps the peace. Give up freedom for security
Problem with the social contract
It's hypothetical not empirical. Authority is established through conquest not consent
Freud, counter argument
Obeying is not something we choose to do - its a product of social conditioning
Locke tacit consent
If you remain in a society you have already agreed to abide by its rules
It's difficult to leave the culture you are born into
All action is motivated by self interest
It is rational and right to peruse your interests
Benefits of social contract (peace)
Peace = industry = prosperity = happiness
Enlightened self interest
Give up your immediate desires in favour of long term goals
Kant - morality means acting against natural inclinations to be selfish
Deontological duties to others is the basis of moral action. If everyone acts this way they should get human rights
Criticisms of Kant (5)
What are our motives for acting morally?
Conflict of duties - Sartre
Murderer at the door - against common sense
Hume intentions are not empirical so impossible to know - shopkeeper
Consequences are more important than intentions (utilitarianism)
Plato virtue ethics
Desires are irrational and mistake pleasure for good. Selfish wants change and aren't always good.
Good is rational and leads to you achieving long term goals.
What's eudiamonia (achieved through virtue ethics)?
Happiness through being the most successful version of you
Criticisms of Plato (3)
Nietzsche - Plato says those who know it will follow the good. What about clever/bad people?
Virtue sometimes leads to misery.
Aristotle - the good is not absolute and universal but relative to the kind of person you are
Descartes skeptical method
Experience cannot be the foundation of all our ideas because the senses are faliable. We could be being manipulated by an evil genius or dreaming.
Descartes - not tab ras
I have a clear and distinct idea of myself. I think therefore I am. We cannot deny the predicate without falling into contradiction - we are not born tab ras. For the clear/distinct concept of the self is prior to and necessary for experience itself
Descartes - trademark
Uses this to demonstrate his perceptions are reliable. He has a clear/distinct idea of god. It is innate a priori and necessarily true. Concept of god cannot come from the mind because something greater cannot come from something lesser
The Cartesian circle
Clear/distinct ideas cannot be fallible as god is no deceiver, yet this is based on the fact that god exists to make clear/distinct ideas necessarily true
How Locke says we imagine god
We have experience of father/authority figures and simply imagine an ultimate version
Hume - origin of ideas
All ideas can be traced back to simple impressions. Perceptions and sensations/feelings. Simple ideas are less vivid copies of impressions. (Compound, transpose, augment, negate, dimminish)
Hume's criticism of himself
Missing shade of blue
Berkeley - absurd
To be is to be perceived
Piraha Indians in and out of experience
What is moral judgement based on?
Sentiment not reason
GE Moore ethical non naturalism
There are no moral facts in nature that can be verified true or false, therefore morality is not empirical
Criticism - cultural relativism
All cultures have different ideas/values which are historically specific
Plato - mathematical principles exist independently of us
The meno - slave boy deduces Pythagoras. Principles exist in physical objects using the innate power of reason
Criticism - Locke
Why can't children and idiots reason if the knowledge of deduction is innate?
Hume's fork - reasons of idea
Analytic a priori propositions
A>B B>C then A>C
Hume's fork - matters of fact
Verified true/false through empirical evidence
Synthetic a posteriori propositions
Tells us something new about the world
The sun is 92.9 million miles away from the earth
Kant categories of understandin
Time, space, causation, quantity are the conditions of possibility for experience itself. They sort our intuitions making sense data meaningful. "Concepts without intuitions are empty but intuitions without concepts are blind"
Chomsky universal grammar
We are born with the innate capacity to acquire a language
All children learn language the same way
Children can produce original sentences from a poverty of stimulus