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Flashcards in Mklty Deck (35):
1

Prisoners dilemma

Acting in self interest doesn't always lead to the best consequences

2

The free rider problem

Someone who reaps the benefits of morality but doesn't bear the cost if acting morally - objection to the view that acting morally is in self interest

3

Rational egoism

Self I interest is getting what you would want if you were completely rational

4

Social contract

Power is invested in an all mighty sovereign who keeps the peace. Give up freedom for security

5

Problem with the social contract

It's hypothetical not empirical. Authority is established through conquest not consent

6

Freud, counter argument

Obeying is not something we choose to do - its a product of social conditioning

7

Locke tacit consent

If you remain in a society you have already agreed to abide by its rules

8

Hume (counter)

It's difficult to leave the culture you are born into

9

Psychological egoism

All action is motivated by self interest

10

Ethical egoism

It is rational and right to peruse your interests

11

Benefits of social contract (peace)

Peace = industry = prosperity = happiness

12

Enlightened self interest

Give up your immediate desires in favour of long term goals

13

Kant - morality means acting against natural inclinations to be selfish

Deontological duties to others is the basis of moral action. If everyone acts this way they should get human rights

14

Criticisms of Kant (5)

What are our motives for acting morally?
Conflict of duties - Sartre
Murderer at the door - against common sense
Hume intentions are not empirical so impossible to know - shopkeeper
Consequences are more important than intentions (utilitarianism)

15

Plato virtue ethics

Desires are irrational and mistake pleasure for good. Selfish wants change and aren't always good.
Good is rational and leads to you achieving long term goals.

16

What's eudiamonia (achieved through virtue ethics)?

Happiness through being the most successful version of you

17

Criticisms of Plato (3)

Nietzsche - Plato says those who know it will follow the good. What about clever/bad people?
Virtue sometimes leads to misery.
Aristotle - the good is not absolute and universal but relative to the kind of person you are

18

Descartes skeptical method

Experience cannot be the foundation of all our ideas because the senses are faliable. We could be being manipulated by an evil genius or dreaming.

19

Descartes - not tab ras

I have a clear and distinct idea of myself. I think therefore I am. We cannot deny the predicate without falling into contradiction - we are not born tab ras. For the clear/distinct concept of the self is prior to and necessary for experience itself

20

Descartes - trademark

Uses this to demonstrate his perceptions are reliable. He has a clear/distinct idea of god. It is innate a priori and necessarily true. Concept of god cannot come from the mind because something greater cannot come from something lesser

21

The Cartesian circle

Clear/distinct ideas cannot be fallible as god is no deceiver, yet this is based on the fact that god exists to make clear/distinct ideas necessarily true

22

How Locke says we imagine god

We have experience of father/authority figures and simply imagine an ultimate version

23

Hume - origin of ideas

All ideas can be traced back to simple impressions. Perceptions and sensations/feelings. Simple ideas are less vivid copies of impressions. (Compound, transpose, augment, negate, dimminish)

24

Hume's criticism of himself

Missing shade of blue

25

Berkeley - absurd

To be is to be perceived
Piraha Indians in and out of experience

26

What is moral judgement based on?

Sentiment not reason

27

GE Moore ethical non naturalism

There are no moral facts in nature that can be verified true or false, therefore morality is not empirical

28

Criticism - cultural relativism

All cultures have different ideas/values which are historically specific

29

Plato - mathematical principles exist independently of us

The meno - slave boy deduces Pythagoras. Principles exist in physical objects using the innate power of reason

30

Criticism - Locke

Why can't children and idiots reason if the knowledge of deduction is innate?

31

Hume's fork - reasons of idea

Analytic a priori propositions
Necessarily true/false
Tautological
A>B B>C then A>C

32

Hume's fork - matters of fact

Verified true/false through empirical evidence
Synthetic a posteriori propositions
Continently true
Tells us something new about the world
The sun is 92.9 million miles away from the earth

33

Kant categories of understandin

Time, space, causation, quantity are the conditions of possibility for experience itself. They sort our intuitions making sense data meaningful. "Concepts without intuitions are empty but intuitions without concepts are blind"

34

Chomsky universal grammar

We are born with the innate capacity to acquire a language
All children learn language the same way
Children can produce original sentences from a poverty of stimulus

35

Sapir whorf hypothesis

We are born a blank slate and what we can think is determined by the language we speak