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Two factors to affect both obedience and collective behavior

culture (B) and personality (D)


What is meant by conformity include an example

when a seen group pressure leads people changing their behaviors or their opinions so they can fit in with socially accepted conventions and norms and an example would be changing basketball team you support after being mocked at by someone you want to be like


One social factor that affects conformity and how

One would be group size as an individual is more likely to conform in a group of 3 or more people who are behaving similarly and have the same opinion


In order for studies into conformity to be carried out, participants are often not fully informed when they are asked to give consent to take part. Explain why this happens

- If we get informed consent it would mean that participants could change the way they behave and not act naturally
- once they know the real aim and purpose of the study they could prevent the researcher from getting the results they need
- might even change their natural behavior in order to be socially desirable.
- however studied that were carried out in a natural environment like in field experiments like piliavin’s subway study,
- it would be difficult or even impossible to speak to every person and inform them about the study And
- ask for their consent due to the amount of people


Describe one way researchers deal with this deception after the study has finished

- participants must be informed and debriefed as quickly as possible after the experiment
- including being told the real aim of the study
- and must be asked for their consent to use their results part of the research findings
- but if the participants at refuse to give consent and refuse to let the researcher use their results
- their results must be withdrawn


evaluate milgram’s agency theory of factors affecting obedience and refer to gareth and Harry’s behaviour.

- gareth started picking up litter straight away when he was given an order by someone in authority.
-however Harry did not follow the order to pick up the litter
- milgrams theory explains why gareth obeyed the orders but does not explain why Harry did not despite being given orders by the same authority figure.
- there is evidence from real life situations that supports milgrams theory such as The Nazi guards at concentration camps
- in the experiment that milgram carried out he found that 65% of the participants were prepared to do something that would have led someone to die and that’s just because someone they believed was an authority figure told them to.
- although 65% did follow orders in milgram’s study, his theory does not explain why 35% of the ppts did not fully obey the orders that they were given
- milgram’s theory focuses on social factors that affect obedience but it was most suggested that dispositional factors are more important indicating how obedient people will be such as their personality


describe piliavin's subway study and evaluate the research method used in this study.

- Piliavin's aim was to investigate the effect of a victim's appearance would have on helping behaviour
- his study was a field experiment that was carried out on a subway train in new york city.
- they had an actor pretend to collapse in the train ride
- the actor's appearance was chance - in some of the trials he appeared to be drunk, and in other trials, he appeared to be sober and carried a walking stick.
- the researchers observed and recorded how often and how quickly the actor received help.
- when the actor was carrying a stick and was sober he was helped in 70 seconds and 95% of the time.
- however, when he appeared to be drunk, he had help within 70 seconds too but was helped 50% of the time.
- piliavin concluded that a person's appearance will affect whether or not they receive help and how quickly that help is given
- one weakness of the study that piliavins study was a field experiment
- which means that there was only little control over the possible extraneous variables.
- this means that it is not possible to know for sure if the independent variables were the only things affecting the dependent variable
- one strength of the study that it was carried out in a natural setting as the participants were the passengers on the subway who were following their normal everyday routine.
- they did not know they were taking part in a study
- this is positive because it meant they did not show demand characteristics and acted as they usually would on a normal day in life.
- this means it has high ecological validity and can be applied to explain bystander behaviour in real-life situations.
- as participants were not aware of the study nor being part of the study so they were not able to give any consent.
- because they were on a subway and left at different points and carried on with their day
- they were not debriefed or asked for permission to use their result
- which makes the ethics questionable


identify the type of relationship shown in the results in table 1



in the conversation of pair number three, 75% of the five minutes were flowing conversation
which is the correct ratio



when researchers use people who are pretending to be real participants. which of the following ethical issues is not being dealt with property?



outline one strength and one weakness of correlations

- one strength is that they are a good starting point for psychological research
- as they allow researchers to see if two variables were connected in some way.
- if a relationship is found, further research using a different method can take place in order to find the cause of the results
- and it can be used when it is impossible or unethical to
do an experiment.
- one weakness is that if a correlation is found it does not show which of the two variables measured actually caused the relationship to happen
- sometimes it is another variable altogether that is the reason for the correlation.


Give one conclusion that the researcher could draw about the effect of eye contact on the flow of a conversation.

- The results in the table show that as the percentage of eye contact increases, the percentage of
non-flowing conversation decreases.
- Therefore, the researcher could conclude that when there is more eye contact made in a conversation, then there is also more smooth flowing conversation


Other than regulating the flow of conversation, name one function of eye contact.

Expressing emotion


Outline Piaget’s theory that language depends on thought.

- Piaget’s theory says that children develop language by matching the correct words to their existing
knowledge of the world.
- The child’s understanding of the concept comes first and then they learn how to express their understanding of it
- hence his theory is that language depends on thought
- Piaget believed that cognitive development leads to the growth of language
- this means that we can only use language at a level that matches our cognitive development
- for example when a child may copy a
word, when they hear others, use it, but until they understand the concept, they will not actually be
able to use the word to communicate.
- Piaget’s theory states that children develop their ability to use language in stages.
- In the sensorimotor
stage, babies are learning what their bodies can do, and this includes making vocal sounds and copying the sounds they hear
- In the preoperational stage, children are able to voice their internal thoughts but there is limited use of language for communicating with other people.
- In the concrete operational stage, language has developed a lot but it is only used to talk about actual, concrete things
- In the formal operational stage, language
can be used to talk about abstract, and their thoughts.


Compare human and animal communication. Refer to the conversation above in your

- Chimpanzees try to attract a mate (for reproduction) by taking small bites of leaves
- but humans plan/discuss events in the future - like where to go out for a date
- Animal communication has limited functions in comparison to human communication.
- Animals are not able to use communication to plan ahead and discuss future events.
- Both humans and animals communicate to ensure survival and reproduction, to protect territory, and to gather food.
- animals use their bodies to communicate in ways that humans generally do not because they are limited in their use of vocal sounds unlike humans


Identify from Table 2 which participant showed the most improvement



Identify the modes for the time taken before and after practicing.

before : 6
after : 4


Use your knowledge of Hebb’s theory of learning and neuronal growth to explain these

- The results show that all of the participants became faster after spending a week practicing
- This seems to suggest that the neural pathways that were being used when carrying out the eye-hand coordination skills,
- so they were getting more efficient because the cell assemblies were firing together at least 15 times every day.
- Hebb’s theory states that when neurons repeatedly excite another neuron, neuronal growth will
- This results in the formation of neural pathways.
- Hebb stated that the more we use these cell assemblies, the stronger, more efficient the neural
pathways become and the stronger the learning is.


Using your knowledge of localisation function in the brain and the information in the conversation above, identify two areas of the brain that were not affected by the metal rod.

Motor area and Broca’s area because the man that was injured was still able to walk and speak


Referring to the case study above, choose two scanning techniques and identify the
damage that those scans could show. Evaluate both scanning techniques.

- CT – the man is described as having ‘a metal rod go through the top of his skull’. This suggests
that the bone has been damaged and could show up on a CT scan.
- fMRI - the man’s personality and emotions have changed so they could get him to respond to
pictures that produce different emotions to see which parts of his brain are active to look for abnormalities.
- CT scans would be appropriate to use because they show the difference between bone and grey matter.
- However, CT scans require more radiation than normal X-rays and a complex and detailed scan
may be needed to see the size of the damage. This would involve exposure to more radiation which could be dangerous.
- An fMRI scan is accurate and clear and there are no X-rays or radioactive substances involved indicating it's safe to use.
- However, they are expensive and the patient must stay completely still.


Which of the following is a cost to society that the government spokesperson in the article
may have been referring to?



Give two examples of the effects of mental health problems on an individual

Damage to relationships and Negative impact on physical well-being


Explain one difference between unipolar depression and bipolar depression.

unipolar depression alternates between low mood and high mood which is known as mania as well as having high energy levels however people with unipolar depression just have low mood.


Use your knowledge of unipolar depression to complete the following letter asking for a
a place for Patient A on a cognitive behaviour therapy course (CBT).

- Low mood
- Reduced energy
- Changes in appetite levels


You have been asked to conduct a study to investigate the effects of cognitive behaviour
therapy (CBT) on people who have been diagnosed with depression.

there will be two groups- one group of people that goes to cognitive behaviour therapy and one group goes to psychotherapy
- we observe the differences after 2 weeks and see the results.
- I'm going to choose my participants through random sampling so I will put names in a hat and I will make sure to give every member of the target group an equal chance of being selected for the sample to avoid bias
- I will use standardised instructions because then I can be sure that all the participants know what they
need to do and will do the same thing


According to the International Classification of Diseases, which symptoms of Dependence
The syndrome is Alice experiencing?

- having difficulty controlling the use of substance
- a higher priority is given to the substance
- having a strong desire to use substance


Identify one intervention or therapy that the doctor might recommend for Alice if she is diagnosed with Dependence Syndrome. Justify your choice by referring to the conversation above.

the appropriate therapy for Alice would be aversion therapy
- Because Alice says that she does not ‘have the motivation or the time to address my drinking
- self-management programs would not be appropriate.


Outline one weakness of the intervention/therapy you have recommended in question

one weakness is that it raises ethical concerns so it is important that the process is fully explained to the client and informed consent must be gained.


Evaluate Kaij’s twin study of alcohol abuse.

one weakness is that the sample is limited because all of the participants were twins, male, and Swedish.
- This means that the findings are not representative of people who are female, or who are not twins or Swedish.
- another weakness is that Identical twins are often brought up in the same ways
- so it may be environmental (nurture) and not genetics (nature) that was the cause of the comparable rates of alcohol use.


Evaluate Kaij’s twin study of alcohol abuse.

- one weakness is that the sample is limited because all of the participants were twins, male, and Swedish.
- This means that the findings are not representative of people who are female, or who are not twins nor Swedish.
- another weakness is that Identical twins are often brought up in the same ways
- so it may be environmental (nurture) and not genetics (nature) that was the cause of the comparable rates of alcohol use.
- last weakness is that Kaij found that 54% of the identical twins were in the same category as their co-twin for alcohol use,
- that also means that 46% were not in the same category - which suggests there are not just genetic factors involved in alcohol use.