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Flashcards in Mock Midterms Deck (21):
1

3 typical organs for hemorrhagic infarct:
(giving you 5 possible answers but they only asked for 3)

1. Pulmonary Infarct
2. Late Reperfusion AMI
3. Intestinal Infarct
4. Encephalomalacia rubra
5. Testis

2

Most common cause of cardiac wall rupture

Myocardial infarction (mainly occurs during the capillarization period 3-12 days after infarct)

3

4 Microscopic Features of Necrosis

1. Pyknosis, Karyorrhexis, Karyolysis
2. Cellular swelling
3. Eosinophilic cytoplasm
4. Glassy, homogenous

4

Type of calcification in arteriosclerotic plaque

Dystrophic

5

Cause and 3 major consequences of prostate hypertrophy

Cause: Decreased production and sensitivity to testosterone/DHT

Consequence:
1. Lower urinary tract obstruction
2. Bladder distension
3. Hydronephrosis

(there may be other answers for this because I feel like they're all basically the same answer; maybe thrombus from periprostatic veins?)

6

Definition of abscess

Collagen-enclosed accumulation of pus in a non-preformed body cavity

(differs from empyema which is in a preformed body cavity)

7

3 examples of infective granulomas:

1. tuberculosis
2. syphillis
3. Aspergillosis pulmonis (a fungus)

Some others we didn't talk about: leprosy, schistosomiasis, cat scratch disease

8

4 fates of thrombus

1. Lysis
2. Embolism
3. Organization
4. Recanalization
(5: Growth/ Propagation)

9

Term for blood in the brain ventricles

Haemocephalis internus

10

Term for inflammation of the cecum

Typhlitis

11

What is Trousseau's Sign?

Trousseau has 2 signs named after him, but the first one is probably more important to pathology

1. Early sign of pancreatic or gastric cancer: Migrating thrombophlebitis and blood clots
2. Hypocalcemia: inflating a blood pressure cuff causes their hand to curl up

12

4 examples of liquefactive necrosis:

1. Gangrena humida
2. Anemic cerebral infarcts
3. Pulmonary abscess
4. Encephalomalacia rubra
(5. pancreatic necrosis has liquefactive as well as fat necrosis)

13

What is wavefront theory?

MI originates in the subendocardium and progresses outwards towards the subepicardium

This is because the subendocardium works harder and has greater oxygen demands, has higher pressure against the arteries, and is further from the origin of the arteries

14

3 microscopic signs of acute inflammation:

1. Dilated capillaries
2. Significant amount of neutrophils are present (macrophages are for later or chronic inflammation)
3. Eosinophilic exudate masses

15

2 types of calcification

Dystrophic
Metastatic

16

6 types of atrophy based on mechanism

1. Decreased workload / Reduced function
2. Loss of innervation
3. Loss of endocrine stimulation
4. Oxygen/nutrition deficit
5. Persistent injury
6. Aging

17

4 forms / complications of acute purulent inflammation

1. Abscess
2. Empyema
3. Phlegmon (purulent inflammation of connective tissue)
4. Purulent meningitis

18

3 examples of non-infective granulomas

1. Sarcoidosis
2. Suture granuloma (foreign body)
3. Rheumatoid myocarditis (sort of; the part that causes rheumatic fever is infectious but rheumatic fever that causes myocarditis is an autoimmune disease)

19

4 major acquired causes of hypercoagulability

1. Oral contraceptives
2. Smoking
3. Obesity
4. Sedentary lifestyle
(5. Treatment with unfractionated heparin)

20

Term for blood in the pertioneal cavity

Hemascos is the annoying hard-to-remember one,
Hemoperitoneum is the obvious one

21

Term for inflammation of the rectum

Proctitis

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