Flashcards in Mock Questions Deck (52)

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1

## What does the mean describe?

### How data is concentrated

2

## What does standard deviation describe?

### How data is separated

3

## How is the mean calculated?

### Sum of all the samples / no. of samples

4

## How is SD calculated?

###
Square root of:

Sum of (x - mean) squared / n-1

5

## What shape is ND graph?

### Bell curve

6

## Where is the mean on a ND graph?

### Peak

7

## How much data is included in the ranges of mean +/- 1, 2 and 3 SD's?

###
+/- 1 SD = 68%

+/- 2 SD = 95%

+/- 3 SD = 99%

8

## What forms can be inputted to SPSS?

###
txt

excel

input manually

9

## What are the 3 types of data?

###
Numerical

Nominal

Ordinal

10

## What is nominal data? Give an example

###
Categories without rank

(e.g. gender, colour weekday, place)

11

## What is ordinal data?

###
Categories with rank

(e.g. pain, satisfaction, comfort)

12

## What data characteristics can be shown using a histogram?

### Frequency and distribution

13

## In SPSS, what can users do on variable view?

### Define variable

14

## In SPSS, what can users do with data view?

### Input and edit data

15

## What is the median?

### Middle number when the data is ordered

16

## What does the crosstab function do?

###
Arranges 2 variables into a table

Can calculate hypothesis and chi square directly

17

## What is an error bar?

### Mean with: SD, SEM or 95% CI

18

## When should an error bar be used compared to a box plot?

###
Error bar - when data is ND

Box plot - when data is not ND

19

## What is a box plot?

###
The median (50%)

Quartiles (25% and 75%)

Extreme values (min and max)

20

## What does a scatter/dot graph show?

### Data trends/patterns between 2 variables

21

## How is SEM calculated?

### SD / square root of n

22

## What does 95% CI mean?

### Confidence that the range will include 95% of local mean

23

## When is the median more useful than the mean?

### When the data is not normal distribution

24

## How is variance calculated?

### The square of SD

25

## What is a pie/bar chart useful for showing?

### Proportions and percentages in data

26

## In SPSS how what can data be exported as?

###
txt

excel

Word file

HTML

27

## If p is LESS THAN 0.05 what does this mean?

### SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE

28

## If p is GREATER THAN 0.05 what does this mean?

### NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE

29

## What do * and ** mean?

###
* p <0.05

** p 1,0.01

SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE

30

## When would you accept the null hypothesis?

### If p < 0.05

31

## What are the key indices used in test of hypothesis?

###
Mean

SD

Sample size

Significant level (p)

32

## What is the difference between dependent and independent data?

###
Independent - measurements done once for each individual

Dependent - samples taken two/multiple times for each individual

33

## What are the 3 indications to use an independent t test?

###
Normal distribution

Numerical data

Small sample size (big still ok)

34

## What test should be used for dependent data?

### Paired t test

35

## What is an alternative if data is not suitable for t test?

### ANOVA

36

## What result from ANOVA would indicate the need for a post-hoc test?

### p < 0.05 to check which pair ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT

37

## What assumption is made when using a Chi square?

### All groups have the same chance (equal no. from each group)

38

## What test methods can be used for data that is not numerical or normal distribution?

###
Wilcoxon signed-ranked test

Mann-Whitney U test

39

## When is a Wilcoxon signed-ranked test used?

### For non-numerical or normal distribution data that is related/paired/dependent

40

## When is Mann-Whitney U test used?

###
No requirements on data distribution

Usually ordinal data

Also scale if the data is not normal distribution

41

## What is the correlation coefficient used to quantify?

### How variables are linearly correlated

42

## What results would be expected for correlation and what do they mean?

###
Value between -1 and 1

0 is the worst value for correlation

Closer the value to 1 or -1 the more correlated

43

## When should linear regression be used?

### If 2 variables have a significant linear correlation

44

## What is the purpose of linear regression?

### To construct an equation to describe the relationship between the 2 variables

45

## What form does a linear regression equation follow?

###
y - b1 + b2x

(y = mx + c)

46

## What does b1 mean in a linear regression equation?

### The intercept

47

## What does b2 indicate in a linear regression equation?

### The gradient of the slope

48

## What is the purpose of survival analysis?

### To analyse how a ratio of occured to inon-occured cases changes with time

49

## What is needed for survival analysis to work?

### Large sample size

50

## What is the purpose of meta analysis?

### To compare different opinions by analysing multi source data to find which is the favourite by most studies

51

## What is needed for meta analysis to work?

### Data needs to be in similar format

52