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Flashcards in MOD 1 Deck (41)
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What is Dematitas ?

Inflammation of the skin


What is Polymerization

A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules .In a hazardous polymerization, this reaction occurs at a rate that releases large amounts of energy, causing fires, explosions, or burst containers. Materials that can polymerize usually contain inhibitors that delay the reaction.



Silicosis is caused by exposure to inhalable crystalline silica dust. Crystalline silica is a basic component of soil, sand, granite, and most other types of rock, and is used as an abrasive blasting agent. Silicosis is a progressive, disabling, and often fatal lung disease. Cigarette smoking exacerbates the lung damage caused by silicosis.


What does HCS stand for ?

 Hazard Communication Standard


What does GHS stand for ?

Globally Harmonized System 


Why is the HCS needed ?

workers have both a need and a right to know about the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when performing their tasks and duties.


Where and What does the HCS cover ?

The Whole USA, The Hazard Communication Standard covers both physical (such as explosive, flammable) and health (acute and chronic) hazards. Being a worker or an employer, you have a need and a "right to know" how you can handle chemicals safely.


What are hazardous and toxic materials ?

Hazardous and toxic materials are those chemicals that may be present in a workplace and have a capacity to harm humans. Mixtures, fuels, solvents, paints, and dusts are all considered hazardous substances or materials.


What is Toxicity

The term toxicity is used to describe the ability of a substance to cause a harmful effect. Almost everything is toxic at some dose or concentration.


What does flashpoint mean ?

The factor that determines whether a liquid is flammable is its flashpoint.

The flashpoint is a minimum temperature at which a liquid produces enough vapor within a test vessel in adequate concentration to form a flammable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid.


What are the 4 categorys of Flammable liquids ?

Category 1: Liquids with a flash point less than 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit and an initial boiling point less than or equal to 95 degrees Fahrenheit
Category 2: Liquids with a flash point less than 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit and an initial boiling point greater than 95 degrees Fahrenheit
Category 3: Liquids with a flash point greater than or equal to 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit and less than or equal to 140 degrees Fahrenheit
Category 4: Liquids with a flash point greater than 140 degrees Fahrenheit and less than or equal to 199.4 degrees Fahrenheit


What is a hazard class ?

Hazard class is the nature of the physical or health hazards, for example a flammable solid, carcinogen, or oral acute toxicity.


What is a container ?

Container means any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical


What is exposure

Exposure (or exposed) means that an employee is subjected, as a condition of employment, to a chemical that is a physical or health hazard, including potential (accidental or possible) exposure. "Subjected" in terms of health hazards includes any route of entry such as inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, absorption, or injection.


What is a hazard category ?

Hazard category means the division of criteria within each hazard class, for example the four hazard categories of flammable liquids. These categories compare hazard severity within a hazard class and should not be taken as a comparison of hazard categories more generally.


What does immediate use mean ?

Immediate use means that the hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Any hazardous material decanted - pumped from a primary to a secondary container - should have the labeling information transferred to the secondary container also.


What does decant mean ?

gradually pour (liquid, typically wine or a solution) from one container into another, especially without disturbing the sediment.


What is Organic Peroxide

Organic peroxide is any carbon-containing compound with two oxygen atoms joined together. Organic peroxides can be severe fire and explosion hazards.



An oxidizer is a chemical other than a blasting or explosive agent that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either by itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases .



Pyrophoric means a chemical is liable to ignite spontaneously within five minutes of being exposed to air.


Flammable liquides are those that have a flash point below  _______ ?

           100°F ( 37.8°C ) .


combustibles liquids are those that have a flashpoint at or above _________ and not more than __________ ?

140°F ( 60.5°C )  - 199.4°F ( 93°C ) 


What does Self-Reactive mean ?

Self-reactive means a chemical that in its pure state, or as produced or transported, is liable to vigorously polymerize, decompose, or condense under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature, with or without the presence of oxygen. 


What does Water-Reactive mean ?

Water-reactive means a chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.


 yellow, green, and other colored labels you are accustomed to seeing are being replaced with what ?

All labels on hazardous materials will contain one of nine symbols or pictograms. These symbols will be displayed as a black graphic on a white background inside a red diamond shaped border.


The following information must be included on all labels

The product identifier used on the Safety Data Sheet
A signal word, either Danger or Warning
A hazard statement of the exact nature of the hazard, Fatal if Swallowed, or Causes Skin Irritation, for example
The pictogram for the class of hazard for the product
Precautionary statements
The manufacturer's name, address, and contact information


do you know these ?

GHS symbols


An SDS must be maintained in the facility for use by personnel while the material is in the facility, and will be retained for a period of ____years after the use of the material is discontinued.



What does SDS mean ?

Safty data sheet .


Can a SDS be kept electronicly ?



The following information must be included on an SDS.


The name of the substance as used on the label and other identifiers
The recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on its use
The name, address, and phone number of the manufacturer, and an emergency phone number

Hazard Identification:

The hazard classification, signal word, hazard statement, symbol, and precautionary statements 

Composition Information:

For substances, the chemical name, the common name, and any synonyms, and any additives that contribute to the hazard of the substance
For mixtures, the names of the ingredients and the concentration of each unless trade secrets are involved

First Aid:

Necessary first aid measures are described. They are organized according to the different routes of exposure (skin contact, ingestion, etc.)
The most important symptoms and affects, both acute and delayed
How to determine whether or not immediate medical attention is necessary

Firefighting Measures:

Both suitable and unsuitable fire extinguishers
Specific hazards arising from the chemical
Special protective equipment and precautions for firefighters

Accidental Release Measures: personal precautions, protective equipment, emergency procedures, containment, and clean-up

Handling and Storage: precautions for safe handling and conditions for safe storage

Exposure Controls: the permissible exposure limit, (PEL), engineering controls, and individual protection measure such as personal protective equipment

Physical and Chemical Properties: appearance, odor, pH, flash point, melting and freezing points, auto ignition temperature, viscosity, and other factors

Reactivity and Stability: possibility of hazardous reactions, and conditions to avoid such as shock, vibration or exposure to incompatible materials

Toxicological Information: the health effects including likely routs of exposure (inhalation, skin and eye contact), symptoms, immediate and long term effects of exposure, acute and chronic effects, numerical value of toxicity, and whether or not the chemical has been listed as a carcinogen.

Date of preparation or last revision

In addition, there are non-mandatory sections that list ecological information, disposal considerations, and transportation information.

It is the employer's responsibility to translate the information contained on the SDS into any understandable format, and convey that information about the hazards associated with working with any of the hazardous materials in the facility, before an employee is ever exposed to the hazard.

An SDS must always be immediately available to all affected employees for review; however, they can be stored electronically.


Who is responsable for delivering  the SDS information ?

It is obligatory that chemical manufacturers include all the hazard information on SDSs and distribute it to their customers/clients at the time of the first shipment of the hazardous chemicals or materials.


Are Generic SDSs held to the same standerd as the regular ?

A single generic SDS can be created and used for different combinations of hazardous chemicals, as long as the various mixtures of the chemicals are exactly the same. All the conditions and elements required by OSHA for any SDS apply to a generic format as well.


who is responsable for SDS training and information ?

Remember, it is the employer's responsibility to ensure that each employee who handles or uses any hazardous material knows where SDSs are located and how to read and understand them.


what are the 2 types of hazards most common

There are frequently two types of hazards (physical and health) present in a workplace where hazardous chemicals or materials are present. Physical hazards are one of two major definitions of hazards covered by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard. These hazards are responsible for hundreds of deaths and injuries each year in the United States. Accidents involving physical hazards are usually the consequence of a lack of training or neglect concerning the flammability of chemicals. Fire and explosion are the most common physical hazards.

Health Hazards

Hazardous chemicals can affect our health in different ways. Generally, two terms—acute and chronic—are used in order to understand the nature of the health hazards.


what is an acute effect ?

Acute effects indicate that symptoms have occurred rapidly as compared to chronic effects, which means symptoms have manifested themselves over a period of time. The former are of short duration and/or the result of short-term exposures. Some examples of acute effects are those that follow:

Puncture wounds

For instance, if you accidentally spill a strong acid on your hand and the acid begins to burn your skin, this is an accident (an acute effect) as opposed to an illness effect.


what are chronic effects ?

Chronic effects develop as a result of long-term exposures. Some manifestation examples of chronic effects follow:



Lung cancer (from occupational exposure to carcinogens)


Asbestos is a good example of a chronic health hazard. Those people who are exposed to asbestos may take several years to develop serious lung diseases.


what are the 4 routes entry hazardes materials can enter your body ? 

Health hazards can affect a body through four routes of entry:






What is tthe most common route of chimical exposure into the body ?

Inhalation is the most common route of exposure into the body. It normally occurs when you inhale fumes, vapors from solvents, hazardous gasses, or dust. It is the employer's responsibility to be aware of such hazards in the workplace and to protect employees from inhalation hazards.


Do not ____ or _____ immediately after handling any hazardous material. When working with hazardous materials, wear appropriate PPE, and then always wash your hands with soap and water before ____, _____, or ______.

eat, smoke , eating , drinking , or smoking



There are two main types of hazards, physical and health, present in a workplace where hazardous chemicals or materials are present. Fire and explosion are the most common physical hazards. Health hazards may be acute or sudden, such as burns or lacerations, or chronic, such as silicosis or dermatitis caused by long-term exposure to a chemical hazard. Health hazards can affect a body through absorption, inhalation, ingestion, or injection.

Safe work practices, product substitution, engineering controls, training and communication, environmental monitoring, personal monitoring, and personal protective equipment are all measures by which you can control physical and health hazards associated with chemicals in a workplace. A written hazard-communication program must be established in all workplaces where employees are exposed to hazardous chemicals.