Flashcards in Mod 2 Deck (23):
The scientific method is...
the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation and statistical analysis
Participant bias occurs when
Participants respond differently because they know they are being observed
Researcher bias occurs when
researchers selectively notice evidence that supports their hypothesis
In a naturalistic observation study the researchers observe and record...
behaviors in naturally occurring situations
A case study is...
a research technique in which one person is studied in depth
A correlation study is
a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to one another
The survey method is
a research technique designed to discover self-reported attitudes and behaviors through questionnaires
In a research study the term "population" refers to...
the group of people the researcher draws his sample from
A random sample is
a sample that fairly represents a population because each person has an equal chance of being chosen
What do longitudinal studies study?
The same group of people over a long period of time
Cross-sectional studies compare...
individuals from different age groups at one time
In an experiment, the researcher does what?
Manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on another factor
A hypothesis is
a researchers testable prediction about the outcome of research
An operational definition is
a specification of the exact procedures used to measure a variable
The independent variable in an experiment is
the variable the experimenter manipulates in order to examine its affects in the dependent variable
The dependent variable in an experiment is
the variable the experimenter measures in order to see if it was affected by the change in the independent variable
The difference between the experimental group and the control group is defined by the presence of the
Researchers use the double-blind procedure in order to avoid
Researcher and Participant bias
A non-active substance or condition used to see if the actual drug or condition has any effect beyond expectations is called
In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This was an example of a
The four basic principles used to judge the ethics of research are
Informed consent, Protection from harm, confidentiality, and debreifing
The ethical requirement of informed consent might contribute to what type of bias in a psychological study?