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Flashcards in Mod 4 Deck (81):
1

What are the rules that apply to drawing circuits?

Never combine 2 input lines.
Input lines can be split as input for 2 separate gates.
Output line can be used as an input line.
Output of a gate cannot feed back into that gate

2

What is 8^3?

512

3

What is 8^4?

4096

4

What is 16^2?

256

5

What is 16^3?

4096

6

What is 8^5?

32,768

7

What is 16^4?

65,536

8

What is the order of magnitude?

Scientific notation of very large numbers. Each order of magnitude is 10 times the previous one.

9

What is the prefix for thousand?

Kilo (10^3) or (2^10)

10

What is the prefix for million?

Mega (10^6) or (2^20)

11

What is the prefix for billion?

Giga (10^9) or (2^30)

12

What is the prefix for trillion?

Tera (10^12) or (2^40)

13

What is the prefix for quadrillion?

Peta (10^15) or (2^50)

14

What is the prefix for quintillion?

Exa (10^18) or (2^60)

15

What is the prefix for thousandth?

Milli (10^-3)

16

What is the prefix for millionth?

Micro (10^-6)

17

What is the prefix for billionth?

Nano (10^-9)

18

What is the prefix for trillionth?

Pico (10^-12)

19

What is the prefix for quadrillionth?

Femto (10^-15)

20

What is the prefix for quintillionth?

Atto (10^-18)

21

In order of magnitude when is the power of 2 used and when is the power of 10 used?

Power of 2 is used for data storage while power of 10 is used for time and speed

22

How large of an integer can a byte hold?

An integer of 0-255 (one less than 2^8)

23

How large of of an integer can a word hold?

0-65,535 (one less than 2^16)

24

How large of an integer can a double word hold?

0 to (2^32)-1

25

How large of an integer can a quad word hold?

0 to (2^64)-1

26

How big is a nibble?

4 bits

27

How big is a byte?

8 bits

28

How big is a word?

16 bits

29

How big is a double word?

32 bits

30

How big is a quad word?

64 bits

31

What are logical shifts used for?

To divide or multiply unsigned integers.

32

What is SHL?

Shift logical left. Moves n bits in binary to the left and clears each empty bit. Used to multiply by 2^n where n is the number of bits shifted.

33

What is SHR?

Shift logical right. Moves n bits in binary to the right and clears each empty bit. Empty bits are cleared to 0. SHR is used to divide by 2^n where n is the number of bits shifted.

34

What is a file extension?

The letters that come after the dot of a file name (document.doc). Windows uses file extensions to identify types of data within a file.

35

What is a file signature?

The first few bytes within the file and has nothing to do with the file name.

36

What can be used to identify a file signature?

Hex editor.

37

What is one example of the file type text?

-Portable document format.
-File extension - .pdf
-File signature (ASCII) %PDF

38

What is another example of the file type text?

- Rich text format
-File extension- .rtf
-file signature (ASCII) {\rtf

39

What is one example of the file type audio?

-group version 1 audio layer-3
-file extension- .mp3
-file signature (ASCII) ID3

40

What is another example of the file type audio?

-wave
-file extension- .wav
-file signature(ASCII) RIFF

41

What is one example of the file type image?

-portable network graphics
-file extension- .png
-file signature (ASCII) .PNG

42

What is another example of the file type image?

-bitmap image
-file extension- .bmp
-file signature (ASCII) BM

43

What is one example of the file type video?

-audio video interleave
-file extension- .avi
-file signature (ASCII) AVI

44

What is another example of the file type video?

-moving pictures experts group
-file extension- .mpeg
-file signature(ASCII) ID3

45

What is one example of the file type executable?

-executable file format
-file extension- .exe
-file signature(ASCII) MZ

46

What is another example of the file type executable?

-executable and linkable format
-file extension- .elf
-file signature(ASCII) .ELF

47

What is one example of the file type compression?

-GZIP
-file extension- .gz
-file signature(ASCII) ...

48

What is another example of the file type compression?

-ZIP
-file extension- .zip
-file signature (ASCII) PK

49

What are GPRs?

General purpose registers. Used by the programmer to sore data or addresses

50

How many 16bit x86 GPRs are there?

8 (AX,BX,CX,DX,BP,SI,DI,SP)

51

How many 32bit ARM GPRs are there?

13 (R0-R12)

52

What are segment registers?

Used as base locations for program instructions, data, and the stack.

53

How many segment registers does x86 have?

6 (CS, DS, SS, ES, FS, GS)

54

How many segment registers does ARM have?

2 ( SP or R13 and LR or R14)

55

What are status and control registers?

Hold info about the most recent ALU operation, control enabling and disabling of interrupts, and set processor-operating mode.

56

What are the 2 types of x86 status and control registers?

IP and FLAGS

57

What are the 2 types of ARM status and control registers?

PC and CPSR

58

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol E represent?

Quintillion. Exa. 10^18 or 2^60

59

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol P represent?

Quadrillion. Peta. 10^15 or 2^50

60

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol T represent?

Trillion. Tera. 10^12 pr 2^40

61

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol G represent?

Billion. Giga. 10^9 or 2^30

62

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol M represent?

Million. Mega. 10^6 or 2^20

63

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol K represent?

Thousand. Kilo. 10^3 or 2^10

64

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol m represent?

Thousandth. Milli. 10^-3

65

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol u(mew) represent?

Millionth. Micro. 10^-6

66

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol n represent?

Billionth. Nano. 10^-9

67

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol p represent?

Trillionth. Pico. 10^-12

68

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol f represent?

Quadrillionth. Femto. 10^-15

69

In the order of magnitude what does the symbol a represent?

Quintillionth. Atto. 10^-18

70

What are signed integers?

While numbers with a sign. Use 2s compliment format representation. Left most bit holds the sign. 0 is positive 1 is negative.

71

What is the range of signed integers a byte can hold?

-128 to 127

72

What is the range of signed integers a word can hold?

-32768 to 32767

73

What is the range of signed integers a double word can hold?

-2^31 to (2^31)-1

74

What is the range of signed integers a quad word can hold?

-2^63 to (2^63)-1

75

What is a sign bit?

First bit of a signed integer signifying a positive integer.

76

When is 2s compliment performed?

When you are expressing a negative number or finding it's magnitude.

77

What is SAL?

Shift arithmetic left. Multiplies by moving n bits in the value to the left and clearing each empty bit while preserving the sign

78

What is SAR?

Shift arithmetic right. Divides by moving n bits to the right and setting each empty bit to the same sign as the sign bit.

79

How do you represent digits to the right of the decimal point?

Negative exponents.

80

What are the two most common ways to represent text data?

ASCII and Unicode.

81

What is an analog signal?

Continuous signal with the potential for an infinite amount of signal resolution.