Flashcards in Mod 4 Deck (81):

1

## What are the rules that apply to drawing circuits?

###
Never combine 2 input lines.

Input lines can be split as input for 2 separate gates.

Output line can be used as an input line.

Output of a gate cannot feed back into that gate

2

## What is 8^3?

### 512

3

## What is 8^4?

### 4096

4

## What is 16^2?

### 256

5

## What is 16^3?

### 4096

6

## What is 8^5?

### 32,768

7

## What is 16^4?

### 65,536

8

## What is the order of magnitude?

### Scientific notation of very large numbers. Each order of magnitude is 10 times the previous one.

9

## What is the prefix for thousand?

### Kilo (10^3) or (2^10)

10

## What is the prefix for million?

### Mega (10^6) or (2^20)

11

## What is the prefix for billion?

### Giga (10^9) or (2^30)

12

## What is the prefix for trillion?

### Tera (10^12) or (2^40)

13

## What is the prefix for quadrillion?

### Peta (10^15) or (2^50)

14

## What is the prefix for quintillion?

### Exa (10^18) or (2^60)

15

## What is the prefix for thousandth?

### Milli (10^-3)

16

## What is the prefix for millionth?

### Micro (10^-6)

17

## What is the prefix for billionth?

### Nano (10^-9)

18

## What is the prefix for trillionth?

### Pico (10^-12)

19

## What is the prefix for quadrillionth?

### Femto (10^-15)

20

## What is the prefix for quintillionth?

### Atto (10^-18)

21

## In order of magnitude when is the power of 2 used and when is the power of 10 used?

### Power of 2 is used for data storage while power of 10 is used for time and speed

22

## How large of an integer can a byte hold?

### An integer of 0-255 (one less than 2^8)

23

## How large of of an integer can a word hold?

### 0-65,535 (one less than 2^16)

24

## How large of an integer can a double word hold?

### 0 to (2^32)-1

25

## How large of an integer can a quad word hold?

### 0 to (2^64)-1

26

## How big is a nibble?

### 4 bits

27

## How big is a byte?

### 8 bits

28

## How big is a word?

### 16 bits

29

## How big is a double word?

### 32 bits

30

## How big is a quad word?

### 64 bits

31

## What are logical shifts used for?

### To divide or multiply unsigned integers.

32

## What is SHL?

### Shift logical left. Moves n bits in binary to the left and clears each empty bit. Used to multiply by 2^n where n is the number of bits shifted.

33

## What is SHR?

### Shift logical right. Moves n bits in binary to the right and clears each empty bit. Empty bits are cleared to 0. SHR is used to divide by 2^n where n is the number of bits shifted.

34

## What is a file extension?

### The letters that come after the dot of a file name (document.doc). Windows uses file extensions to identify types of data within a file.

35

## What is a file signature?

### The first few bytes within the file and has nothing to do with the file name.

36

## What can be used to identify a file signature?

### Hex editor.

37

## What is one example of the file type text?

###
-Portable document format.

-File extension - .pdf

-File signature (ASCII) %PDF

38

## What is another example of the file type text?

###
- Rich text format

-File extension- .rtf

-file signature (ASCII) {\rtf

39

## What is one example of the file type audio?

###
-group version 1 audio layer-3

-file extension- .mp3

-file signature (ASCII) ID3

40

## What is another example of the file type audio?

###
-wave

-file extension- .wav

-file signature(ASCII) RIFF

41

## What is one example of the file type image?

###
-portable network graphics

-file extension- .png

-file signature (ASCII) .PNG

42

## What is another example of the file type image?

###
-bitmap image

-file extension- .bmp

-file signature (ASCII) BM

43

## What is one example of the file type video?

###
-audio video interleave

-file extension- .avi

-file signature (ASCII) AVI

44

## What is another example of the file type video?

###
-moving pictures experts group

-file extension- .mpeg

-file signature(ASCII) ID3

45

## What is one example of the file type executable?

###
-executable file format

-file extension- .exe

-file signature(ASCII) MZ

46

## What is another example of the file type executable?

###
-executable and linkable format

-file extension- .elf

-file signature(ASCII) .ELF

47

## What is one example of the file type compression?

###
-GZIP

-file extension- .gz

-file signature(ASCII) ...

48

## What is another example of the file type compression?

###
-ZIP

-file extension- .zip

-file signature (ASCII) PK

49

## What are GPRs?

### General purpose registers. Used by the programmer to sore data or addresses

50

## How many 16bit x86 GPRs are there?

### 8 (AX,BX,CX,DX,BP,SI,DI,SP)

51

## How many 32bit ARM GPRs are there?

### 13 (R0-R12)

52

## What are segment registers?

### Used as base locations for program instructions, data, and the stack.

53

## How many segment registers does x86 have?

### 6 (CS, DS, SS, ES, FS, GS)

54

## How many segment registers does ARM have?

### 2 ( SP or R13 and LR or R14)

55

## What are status and control registers?

### Hold info about the most recent ALU operation, control enabling and disabling of interrupts, and set processor-operating mode.

56

## What are the 2 types of x86 status and control registers?

### IP and FLAGS

57

## What are the 2 types of ARM status and control registers?

### PC and CPSR

58

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol E represent?

### Quintillion. Exa. 10^18 or 2^60

59

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol P represent?

### Quadrillion. Peta. 10^15 or 2^50

60

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol T represent?

### Trillion. Tera. 10^12 pr 2^40

61

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol G represent?

### Billion. Giga. 10^9 or 2^30

62

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol M represent?

### Million. Mega. 10^6 or 2^20

63

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol K represent?

### Thousand. Kilo. 10^3 or 2^10

64

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol m represent?

### Thousandth. Milli. 10^-3

65

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol u(mew) represent?

### Millionth. Micro. 10^-6

66

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol n represent?

### Billionth. Nano. 10^-9

67

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol p represent?

### Trillionth. Pico. 10^-12

68

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol f represent?

### Quadrillionth. Femto. 10^-15

69

## In the order of magnitude what does the symbol a represent?

### Quintillionth. Atto. 10^-18

70

## What are signed integers?

### While numbers with a sign. Use 2s compliment format representation. Left most bit holds the sign. 0 is positive 1 is negative.

71

## What is the range of signed integers a byte can hold?

### -128 to 127

72

## What is the range of signed integers a word can hold?

### -32768 to 32767

73

## What is the range of signed integers a double word can hold?

### -2^31 to (2^31)-1

74

## What is the range of signed integers a quad word can hold?

### -2^63 to (2^63)-1

75

## What is a sign bit?

### First bit of a signed integer signifying a positive integer.

76

## When is 2s compliment performed?

### When you are expressing a negative number or finding it's magnitude.

77

## What is SAL?

### Shift arithmetic left. Multiplies by moving n bits in the value to the left and clearing each empty bit while preserving the sign

78

## What is SAR?

### Shift arithmetic right. Divides by moving n bits to the right and setting each empty bit to the same sign as the sign bit.

79

## How do you represent digits to the right of the decimal point?

### Negative exponents.

80

## What are the two most common ways to represent text data?

### ASCII and Unicode.

81