MOD - intro to mod + tumour characteristics/classification Flashcards Preview

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what is disease?

an abnormality of the body that causes loss of normal health


what is the natural history of a disease?

how far along the disease pathway the patient is


what does pathogenesis mean?

the mechanism by which the etiological factors lead to disease


what does the prefix dys- mean?



what does meta- mean?

change from one state to another

eg metastasis


what does the suffix -osis mean?

state or condition

eg osteoarthrosis


what does -oid mean?

bearing a resemblance to

eg rheumatoid disease


what does -penia mean?

lack of

eg thrombocytopenia


what does -cytosis mean?

increased number of cells


what does -plasia mean?

disorder of growth


what does -ectasis mean?


eg bronchiectasis


what are the 2 main types of autopsy?

coronial (forensic and non-forensic)

consented (aka hospital)


what is a labile cell population? name 3 examples

one that is constantly replenishing itself

eg skin, GI tract, blood cells in bone marrow


why don't fibroblasts need to adapt to environmental change?

because they can survive severe metabolic stress without harm (eg absence of O2)


what is adaption?

(often) reversible change in cellular:
-metabolic activity


what are the 2 types of stimuli that cellular adaption can be a response to?

Physiological stimulus –

responding to normal changes in physiology or demand.

Pathological stimulus –

responding to disease-related changes


what are the three different types of results that an adaptive response can lead to?

1. Increased cellular activity -> incr cell size or no.

2. Decreased cellular activity -> decr cell size or no.

3. Change of cell function and morphology


what does hypertrophy mean?

increase in SIZE of cells

- subsequent increase in functional capacity
--increased synthesis of structural components and metabolism

particularly seen in PERMANENT cell populations
- esp. cadiac and skeletal muscle


what does hyperplasia mean?

increase in NUMBER of cells

possible in labile and stable cell populations


what are the 3 most common causes of left ventricular hypertrophy?

-aortic stenosis
-hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)


what is hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)?

an inherited condition causing abnormalities in certain proteins in the heart --> hypertrophy

highest cause of sudden cardiac death in young people (or athletes)

normally asympotomatic


what is a physiological example of hyperplasia?

females get hyperplasia of breast tissue during puberty, preganancy and lactation


what is it called when mean develop breasts and why can it occur?


- happens in liver disease

as normal liver breaks down oestrogen --> increased oestrogen in blood --> signals to 'breast' tissue --> hyperplasia in 'breasts'


what is a physiological and a pathological example of hyperplasia in thyroid tissue?

- pregnancy and puberty, due to increased metabolic demands

- graves disease, due to stimulating antibodies


what are 3 common symptoms of graves disease?

- fine tremor (test by getting them to hold out hands and put bit of paper on them

- proptosis (aka Exophthalmos), eyes bulging forwards, due to inflammation in muscles behind the eye??)

- lid lag (eye lid is slower to close than pupil is to follow descending object)


What is adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate (aka benign prostatic hyperplasia) and what does it lead to?

when the prostate gets enlarged in some old men (due to dihydrotestosterone). This compresses on the urethra, increasing the pressure in the bladder

this --> bladder cells growing and dividing more (bladder hypertrophy and hyperplasia) to increase pressure to try to overcome obstruction


what happens if one kidney is congenitally underformed?

the other kidney undergoes compensatory hyperplasia tocompensate

by increasing no. of cells around tubules

(nb no. of tubules doesn't actually increase!)


what is hyperplasia of the stratum corneum?

chronic pressure/friction on the skin causes thickening of skin (eg due to ill-fitting shoes


What is subcellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia?

give an example of it

subcellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia is an increase in size and number of SUBCELLULAR ORGANELLES

eg if patient takes a lot of barbituates
--> smooth ER hypertrophy --> increased p450 enzyme system activity --> increased metabolism of other drugs

also leads to drug resistance, keep having to take more drugs to have the same effect

barbituates are CNS depressants


what is atrophy?

decrease in cell size and/or number
--> decrease in size of tissue or organ

can be physiological (eg involution) or pathological