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Flashcards in Models Deck (21)
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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

.Motivation theory, once one need is filled they move the next level -
1.Physical Needs / Wage & salary
2.Safety Needs / Contract of employment
3.Psychological Needs / Team work
4.Self Esteem / Job title & empowerment
5.Self actualisation / Autonomy & decision making


Blake Mouton Grid

Grid based on level of concern for employees & production 1 - 9.
1,1 Impoverished
1,9 Country Club
9,9 Team Style
9,1 Produce or Perish
5,5 Middle of the road


The Tannenbaum Schmidt Continuum

Shows 7 leadership levels from manager centred (authoritative) to subordinate centred (Democratic)


Carroll's Corporate Social responsibility Pyramid

The 4 social responsibilities society expects businesses to meet -
1.Economic Responsibility
2.Legal responsibility
3.Ethical responsibility / Moral behaviour
4.Philanthropic responsibility / Good behaviour eg charity


Elkington's Triple Bottom Line

Measure performance of business against three performance indicators.
.Profit - economic
.People - social
.Planet - environmental


Kotter and Schlesinger; s Reasons for Resistance to Change

The 4 reasons why individuals or groups resist change -
1. Parochial self interest
2. Misunderstanding & Fear
3. Different assessment
4. Prefer status quo


Kotter and Schlesinger's Model for Overcoming resistance to Change

1. Education and communication
2. Participation and involvement
3. Facilitation and support
4. Negotiation and agreement
5. Manipulation and co - option
6. Explicit and implicit coercion


Lewin's Force Field Analysis

Driving Forces For Change -
.Increased Competition
.Poor Financial Performance
.Poor Overall Performance
.Dissatisfied Customers

Resisting Forces Against Change -
.Employee Resistance
.Lack of finance
.Stakeholders response
.External environment


Greiner's Model of Growth

5 Phases of growth and the crisis they have to overcome to reach next phase -
.Phase 1 - Creativity
.Crisis 1 - Lack of direction / Needs Leader
.Phase 2 - Direction
.Crisis 2 - Autonomy / Need Greater Delegation
.Phase 3 - Delegation
.Crisis 3 - Fear Loss of control / Need's Formal Procedures
.Phase 4 - Coordination
.Crisis 4 - Red Tape / Needs coordination HQ
.Phase 5 - Collaboration
.Crisis 5 - Potential future crisis will vary


Bowman's Strategic Clock

Outlines Strategies based on price and perceived value -
1. (Low Price Low Value)
2. (Low Price) Medium Value
3. (Hybrid) low price high value
4. (Differentiation) Medium Price High value
5. (Focused Differentiation) High Price High Value
6. (Risky High Margins) High Price Medium Value
7. (Monopoly pricing ) High price Low value
8. (Loss of Market Share) Medium Price Low Value


Ansoff's Matrix

Assess strategic options on whether the market &/or Product are new or existing -
1. Market Penetration - Same Product / Same Market
2. New Market Development - Same Product / Different Market
3. New product development - New Product / Same Market
4. Diversification - New Product / New Market


Hofstede's National Cultures

Theory based on cultural dimensions within different national characteristics -
1. Individualism and Collectivism
2.Masculinity and Femininity
3.Long term and Short term orientation
4.Higher power and lower power distance index
5.Avoiding and embracing uncertainty


Porter's Generic Strategy

Theory on strategic position a business can adopt in relation to competitive advantage.
1. Cost leadership - Low cost / broad Target
2.Cost focus - Low cost / Narrow Target
3. Differentiation - Highly differentiated / Broad Target
4. Differentiation Focus - Highly differentiated / Narrow target


Boston Product Matrix

Analyses product portfolio based on market share and market growth -
1. Problem Child High - High Market Growth / Low Market Share
2. Rising Star - High Market Growth / High Market Share
3. Cash Cow - low Market Growth / High Market Share
4. Dog - Low Market Growth / Low Market Share


Porter's Five Forces of Competitive Position

Five forces of competitive position -
.Competitive Rivalry
.Buying Power customers
.Selling Power Suppliers
.Threat of Substitutes
.Threat of New entrants


Kaplan and Norton's Balance Scorecard

Measures performance of different areas of a business -
1. Financial
2. Customer
3. Internal Business Processes
4. Learning and Growth


Bartlett and Ghoshal's International, Multi - domestic, Transnational and Global Strategies

Different approaches for operating in another country -
1. International - Run from home country
2. Multi Domestic - Operates a portfolio of autonomous companies
3. Global - Sells standardised products in a global market
4. Transnational - uses subsidiaries to run on there own with a little centralised decision making


Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory

Theory of motivation based on motivating and hygiene factors -
1. Motivating factors - can increase motivation eg; responsibility, promotion, growth
2. Hygiene factors - existence does not motivated, however if removed will demotivate eg; pay, relationships, job security


Taylor's Scientific Management

Theory of motivation -
Step 1 figured quickest way to complete tasks
Step 2 Trained employees in that way
Step 3 Used Piece Rate System to Pay them for output


Hackman and Oldham Model of Job Design

Theory which shows job characteristics which effect psychological states which then effect personal and work outcomes -
.Job Characteristics; Skill Variety, task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, Feedback.
.Psychological states; Meaningfulness, responsibility, knowledge of results
.Outcomes; High internal work motivation, High quality work, Knowledge of actual work results, low absenteeism & turnover


Handy's Culture

Outlines 4 types of organisational cultures -
1. Power Culture - power with dominant people at centre
2. Role Culture - clear hierarchy and structure
3. Task Culture - Focus on individual tasks
4. Person Culture - High degree of Autonomy