Modernisation and Son Preference: CHINA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modernisation and Son Preference: CHINA Deck (10):

Authors of the paper?

Burgess and Zhuang (2003).


Why does CHINA traditionally prefer boys to girls?

Deeply rooted Confucian values. Male patriarch.
Sons considered advantageous in agrarian society.
Provide security in old age.


Communist Party in 1949 introduced a number of measures to reduce the inequality but there is still strong evidence of son preference...

Couples with a daughter are less likely to have obtained a one-child certificate.
Parents with daughters are more likely to violate their one-child certificate by having another child.
Couples without a son are less likely to use contraception.


The experiment:

Compare rich region (Jiangsu) and poor region (Sichuan) to look for gender biases in household spending, health, education and mortality.


Gender biases predominantly occur in...

...poor, rural households which are highly dependent on agriculture.


How can public policy help reduce gender inequalities?

Public policy can affect economic growth, off-farm diversification and urbanisation and can therefore counteract gender biases in household spending in key areas such as health and education.


Treatment of male and female children as economic conditions improve?

Becomes more equitable, so we would expect the gender gaps in mortality and enrolment rates to narrow.
Therefore, son preference should not be treated as an immutable social norm or tradition.


How does Jiangsu (richer region) display signs of pre-birth discrimination?

Richer families have more access to ultrasounds and abortions and can therefore terminate the pregnancy if they do not want a girl.


Affects of introducing stricter regulations regarding pre-birth discrimination?

May just result in higher mortality rates for surviving girls.
Son preference may be expressed at the child stage rather than the foetal stage.


Female mortality rates in the early years of life:

Higher in the poorer districts due to lower access to pre-birth screening technology.
No difference in mortality in rich years confirming the theory that boy preference is expressed before birth.