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Flashcards in Module 1-6 test Deck (75)
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1. Change in land cover over the years

Increase in exotic forest and cropping and hort. Decrease in exotic and tussock grassland


1. NZ has a...

Maritime climate (cool summers, mild winters, small annual temp range), young soils (volcanic, sedimentary, erosion processes), mountain backbone


1. NZ soils are...

Naturally acidic and low in nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur


1. NZ volcanic activity

Ash deposits form parent materials for soil.


1. Pre European cover of NZ

Alpine, Montane (beech forests, tussock), lowland and hill forest (tall rainforest, rainfall > 1000m), lowland and hill scrub (drier sites, bracken manuka kanuka)


1. What are QEII covenants

Conserved blocks of native bush or wetland, usually within sheep and beef farms, fenced off from livestock and gifted to the trust


1. The forest cover of NZ after settlers

Before Maori settlers, 75% of NZ was covered in forest (rest of land was unsuitable for forest growth). When Europeans settled forest cover was 53%. Today forest cover is 24%.


1. Burning the forest

1840 - forests burned for farmland development. 1920 farmland area reached the peak. Burning of forest cause soils to lose fertility


1. NZ current livestock

30mil sheep, 3.8mil beef cattle, 6.7mil dairy cattle, 1mil deer, 300,000 pigs


1. What percentage of NZ’s land area is used for pastoral farming



1. What percentage of NZ's land area is used for cropping and hort



1. What percentage of NZ's land area is exotic forest



1. What percentage of NZ's land area is tussock grassland



1. What percentage of NZ's land area is urban



1. What percentage NZ export earnings are from primary industries and dairying

Over 50% for primary, 25% for dairying


1. The value of everything

Efficient price for a resource = marginal cost of supplying the resource + marginal cost of any lost ecological functions + the marginal cost of any co-lateral pollution + the marginal cost of lost future options + the marginal cost of lost existence and bequest value


1. Pastoralism

Moa hunted to extinction 400yrs ago so Maori confined to coastal sites (fish, shellfish, sea mammals) and inland waterways (freshwater mussels, eels) and productive land was cleared and gardened (kumara, taro, yams, green vege, potato)


1. European arrival waves

1st wave - miners (whalers, sealers, timber, amber, gold), 2nd wave - settlers


1. European agricultural technology

Cereal crops, ruminants, legumes. Early adoption of new technology by Maori farmers.


1. What crop was sown after burning and what was exported back to Europe

Cocksfoot sown and persists. Seed exported back to Europe


1. The wheat boom

Lowland tussock ploughed in Marlborough, canterbury, Otago, southland 1860-1910. 1890 - 250,000ha wheat sown (20% of export earnings)


1. Advent of refrigeration

Saved meat industry (access high prices for products overseas). Development of mixed farming (crop, sheep and cattle). First ship of refrigerated meat from dunedin in 1882


1. Seed mixes following forest burn

Used many species because they didn't know which would successfully establish. Legumes to introduce nitrogen, high fertility species to use initial nutrient flush, low fertility species to colonize poorer sites.


1. Origin of agricultural plant species

Europe - ryegrasses, tall fescue, cocksfoot, white and red clover, browntop, Yorkshire fog
Asia - wheat, rye, lucerne
Mediterranean - phalaris, subterranean clover, barley, peas
Central/South America - maize, potatoes, kumara, brome grasses, paspalum


1. The bulk of production comes from...

Animals (5) - sheep, cattle, chicken, deer, pig. Plants (40) - pasture species, pine & douglas fir, wheat and other cereals, potatoes and other veges, fruit trees


1. Auckland Acclimation society

Released 30 birds, fish and animals in first year. Not all were approved such as weasels, ferrets and stoats to control rabbits. ~25,000 plants species introduced. ~2,000 naturalized


1. Weed introductions

Gorse and broom deliberately introduced as hedging material. Blackberry and sweet brier deliberately introduced as vitamin C sources. Hay and stock feed from South Africa were contaminants of other seeds or produce


1. Origins of some weed species

Asia - barberry, Himalayan honeysuckle
Australia - sheeps' burr, wild linen, hakea
South Africa - kikuyu grass, cape weed, boxthorn
South America - nassella tussock, tradescantia, onehunga weed
North America - lodgepole pine, californian poppy, californian thistle, tree lupin, musk
Europe - gorse, broom, dead nettle, buttercup, ragwort, couch grass
Eurasia - shepherds purse, plantain, dock, flannel leaf


1. Legume based pastures

Mutualistic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria. Fixes nitrogen 50-150kgN/ha/year. Highly digestible. High protein and cation content


1. Most prominent horticultural exports

kiwifruit, wine grapes, apples. Then avocados, cherries and blueberries.