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1

Add information from assigned pages such as bolded words, highlighted words and tables

Also practice identifying examples of dependent and independent variables.
Read pg 153 in book about independent and dependent variables.

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Research

Diligent, systematic inquiry or study that validates and fines existing knowledge and develops new knowledge.

3

The ultimate goal for research is to

Develop a body of knowledge for a discipline or profession.

4

Evidence Based Practice: Ultimate Goal is to **

Promote quality, safe and cost-effective outcomes.

5

EBP is the integration of **

Best research evidence with clinical expertise and patients’ values and needs.

6

Best Research Evidence **

Empirical knowledge generated from the synthesis of quality study findings to address a practice problem.

7

Have a general understanding of knowledge, skills and attitudes from QSEN

May be on quiz or exam!!

8

Intuition

An insight into our understanding of a situation prevent as a whole that usually cannot be explained logically.

9

Reasoning

Processing and organizing of ideas to reach conclusions; people are able to make sense of their thoughts, experiences and research evidence.

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The science of logic includes two types of reasoning:

1. Inductive Reasoning
2. Deductive Reasoning

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Inductive Reasoning

Moves from specific to general; particular instances are observed then combined into a larger whole or to general statement.

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Deductive Reasoning

Moves from the general to specific or from a general premise to a particular situation or conclusion.

13

Systematic Review **

STRUCTURED, comprehensive synthesis of the research literature to determine the best research evidence available to address a healthcare question.

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Systematic Reviews involve: **

Identifying, locating, APPRAISING and SYNTHESIZING quality research evidence for expert clinicians to use to promote EBP.

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Systematic Reviews are conducted to determine **

The CURRENT BEST KNOWLEDGE for use in practice.

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Meta-Analysis are conduct to **

Combine or pool the results from previous QUANTITATIVE studies into a SINGLE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS that provides one of the highest levels of evidence about an INTERVENTION’S EFFECTIVENESS.

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Meta-Synthesis **

A systematic compilation of QUALITATIVE STUDY results to expand understanding and develop a unique interpretation rather than combing study results, as with quantitative research synthesis.

18

Levels of Research Evidence **

Strongest:
Systematic review of experimental studies
Meta-analyses of expiramental and quasi-expiramental studies
Integrative reviews of experimental and quasi-experimental studies
....etc.

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Why is the systematic review considered the strongest or best research evidence?

...

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Why are opinions considered the weakest of research evidence?

..

21

Clinical Practice Guidelines **

Are rigorous, explicit clinical guidelines that have been developed based on the best research evidence available in that area.
They are usually developed by a team or panel of expert clinicians, researches and sometimes consumers, policy makers and economists.

22

Quantitative research **

Is a formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating NUMERICAL information.

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What can you use Quantitative Research for? **

1. Describing new situations, events or concepts
2. Examining relationships among variables
3. Determining the effectiveness of treatments or interventions on selected health outcomes

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What are the types of quantitative research? **

1. Descriptive
2. Correlations
3. Quasi-experimental
4. Experimental (Randomized controlled trial)

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Quantitative Research: Descriptive **

Exploration or a description of a phenomenon/problem

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Quantitative Research: Correlational **

Investigation of the relationships between or among variables.
Can determine the degree or strength and type (positive or negative) of a relationship between two variables.

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Quantitative Research: Quasi-expiramental **

Examines causal relationships or determine the effect of one variable on another.

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Quasi-experimental studies involve **

Implementing treatment or interventions and examine the effects.

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How do quasi-experimental studies differ from experimental (randomized controlled trial)? **

They lack a certain amount of control over the manipulation of the treatment, management of the setting, and/or selection of subjects.

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Quantitative Research: Experimental (Randomized Controlled Trial) **

Highly controlled investigation conducted for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena.
(Causality between the independent (treatment) and dependent (outcome) variables is examined under highly controlled conditions)

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What are three main characteristics of Experimental (Randomized Controlled Trial) Studies? **

1. Controlled manipulation of at least one treatment variable (independent variable)
2. Exposure of one of the subjects to the treatment (experimental group) and no exposure of the remaining subjects (control group)
3. Random assignment of subjects to the control or experimental group

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Rigor

Striving for excellence in research (precise measuring tools or instruments, a representative sample and tightly controlled design is used)

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Control

Imposing rules in a research study to decrease the possibility of error, thereby increasing the probability that the study’s findings are an accurate reflection of reality.

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Extraneous Variable

Exists in all studies and can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relationship among the study variables.

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Sampling

Process of selecting participants who are representative of the population being studied.

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Setting

Location of the study

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Intervention

The treatment or manipulation in the experimental or quasi-experimental study.

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A study intervention should be

1. Clearly and precisely developed
2. Consistently implemented
3. Examined for effectiveness through quality measurement of the outcome/depended variable(s)

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Independent Variable *Going to be quizzed on*

The intervention that is being manipulated by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable.

Aka an intervention, treatment or experimental variable.

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Dependent Variable *Going to be quizzed on*

The outcome that the researched wants to predict or explain.

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Changes in the dependent variable are presumed to be caused by the

Independent variable

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Steps of the Quantitative Research Process

Don’t need to be super familiar with this process but be aware of how it’s conducted.

43

Reading Research Reports

Become familiar with what can be found in each section *going to be quizzed on. *

44

Qualitative Research **

Is a systematic approach used to describe experiences and situations form the perceptive of the person in the situation.

45

Qualitative Research typically involves **

The collection and analysis of participant words.
The researcher finds meaning in the words and provides a description of the experience that promotes deeper understanding of the experience.

46

What are the differences between qualitative research and quantitative research?**

-Much smaller sample sizes than quantitative studies
-Does not use statistical methods to analyze data
-Unlike quantitative research, you cannot generalize the findings from qualitative research to the greater population.
-In quantitative studies, researches choose a design (descriptive, correlational, etc). In qualitative studies, researchers often us a specific approach.

47

Qualitative Data Collection Methods**

1. One-on-one interviews between the researcher and participant
2. Focus group interviews between the researcher and participants
3. Observation of people in specific environment (most often used during ethnography or with performance of group dynamics or nursing skills)