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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (26):
1

Organic molecules

molecules containing carbon atoms

2

Molecular formula

A chemical formula that indicates the type of atoms and the correct number of each in a mlecule

3

Structural formula

Shows which atoms are attached to which within the molecule. Atoms are represented by their chemical symbols and lines are used to represent ALL the bonds that hold the atoms together.

4

Condensed structural formula

This notation shows the way in which atoms are bonded together in the molecule, but DOES NOT SHOW ALL bond lines.

5

Hydrocarbon

Organic compounds that consist of hydrogen and carbon only.

6

Homologous series

A series of organic compounds that can be described by the same general formula
OR
in which one member differs from the next with a CH2 group

7

Saturated compounds

Compounds in which there are NO multiple bonds between carbon atoms and their hydrocarbon chains
i.e.)all carbon atoms are connected by single bonds

8

Unsaturated compounds

Compounds with one or more multiple bonds between carbon atoms and their hydrocarbon chains
i.e.) the molecule has double/triple bonds between adjacent carbon atoms

9

Functional group

A bond,
,atom
,group of atoms

1. that determine the physical and chemical properties of a group of organic compounds.
2. that form the center of chemical activity in the molecules

10

General formula for alkanes

C2nH2n+2

11

General formula for alkenes

C2nH2n

12

General formula for alkynes

C2nH2n-2

13

radical

- Molecular fragment
- Containing an unpaired electron

14

Interconversion reaction

Where an alcohol can be reacted to produce a haloalkane and vice versa

15

Unsymmetrical alkene

An alkene in which the two carbons of the the double bond are not equivalently substituted
(e.g. in propene)

16

Difference between polymers and plastics

Polymers occur in nature
Plastics are synthetic man-made polymers

17

Give 3 examples of natural polymers

- Wool
- Silk
- Cellulose (found in wood and paper)

18

Macromolecule or polymer molecule

A molecule containing a very large numbers of atoms.
Anything from 2 000 - 20 000 carbon atoms in the parent chain

19

Functional group

An atom of a group of atoms in a molecule
Form the center of chemical activity in the molecule

20

Monomer

Small organic molecules
That can be covalently bonded to each other in a repeating pattern

(can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer molecule)

21

Polymer

A substance that
Has a molecular structure built up from a large number of similar nits (monomers) bonded together

22

Addition polymerisation

-A reaction in which 2+ small molecules join together to form very large molecules by adding on double bonds

- give a single product molecule

23

Condensation polymerisation

Molecules of 2 monomers with DIFFERENT functional groups undergo condensation reactions with the loss of small molecules, (usually elimination of a water molecule)

24

3 main differences between addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation

1. Condensation polymers from more slowly

2. Water is formed in a condensation. No by-products are formed in addition polymerisation

3. Monomers of addition polymers contain carbon-carbon bonds. Monomers of condensation polymers contain functional groups (such as alcohols and carboxylic acids)

25

Polymerisation

A chemical reaction
In which monomer molecules join to form a polymer

26

List 4 industrial uses of Polyethene/ polyethylene

-Plastic bags
-Bottles
-Containers
-Plastic boxes / crates