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Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (20):
1

Isomers

Organic molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

2

Chain isomer

Same molecular formula, but different types of chain

3

Positional isomer

Same molecular formula, but different positions of the:
side chain,
substituents or
functional groups on a parent chain

4

Functional isomer

Same molecular formula, but different functional groups

5

London Dispersion forces

weakest
Momentary dipole forms during a collision

6

Dipole-dipole forces

polar molecule
Electrostatic attraction between opposite ends of two molecules

7

Hydrogen bonds

Directional,
strongest,
dipole-dipole bond
H bonded to O, N, F

8

Covalent bonds

Form by overlapping orbitals and shared electron pairs

9

IMFs

The accumulated electrostatic attraction between the molecules

10

Summarise the general relationship between the length of carbon chain and boiling point of the compound

As molecular mass increase,
The strength of the IMFs increases,
The amount of energy needed to separate molecules increases

So boiling point is higher

11

Vapour pressure

The pressure exerted by the evaporated liquid in a closed container.

12

Why are volatile organic compounds a safety hazard?

If compound is flammable and volatile then more molecules are in gas phases and mixed with oxygen in the air and so can ignite/burn/explode.

13

Equation for the combustion of alkanes

(use of alkanes as fuels)

Alkane + excess oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

OR

if not enough oxygen is present, incomplete combustion can occur, resulting in formation of CO

14

Acid catalyst

The presence of an acid is used to speed up the reaction

15

Condensation reaction

One of the products is water

16

Substitution reactions

Occur when an atom(s) in an organic molecule is replaced by another atom

17

Addition reactions

Where one or more atoms are added across a double bond in a molecule.

18

Name the test we use to test for a carbon-carbon double bond

Halogenation

19

Markowikov's rule

Addition of HX to unsymmetrical alkenes:

Hydrogen atom adds to carbon atom already carrying the GREATER number of hydrogen atoms

20

Cracking

Breaking long chain alkanes into shorter alkanes and alkenes