Flashcards in Module 1 lesson 3 Deck (25):

1

## prevalence

### proportion that measures the burden of disease in a population. NOT a reliable measure of risk

2

## Point prevalence

### number of existing cases at a point in time divided by the size of the population.

3

## Period prevalence

###
calculated as existing cases at start of time period plus new cases over a period of time all divided by the size of the population of interest.

=point prev +cummulative prev

4

##
Death rate

### the number of deaths due to a particular condition in a specified population divided by total time at risk for specified population.

5

## Measures of association

### difference measure, ratio measure

6

## difference measure

###
est the absolute effect of a factor on risk or magnitude for health outcome

Ex: Incidence rate difference

7

## Purpose of epidemiology

###
describe disease occurance in human populations

a scientific search for harmful and beneficial risk factors

need to measure potential risk factors and health outcomes

8

## measures of disease occurrence

###
based on discrete events, but measure may be treated as a numerical variable or categorical variable

For rate: # of events occurring in population/time over which the event takes place

For proportion: # of events occuring in population/size of population

incidence proportion

incidence rate

death rate

prevalence

9

## measures of association

###
difference measures (risk difference or attributable risk

ratio measures (incidence rate ration and odds ratio)

10

## Stratification measures

###
crude measures

specific measures

11

## Incidence proportion

###
estimate for risk in population

calculated as number of people developing the health outcome divided by size of population

time over which measurement is made must be included in description

assumes fixed population (everyone has same risk)

12

## incidence rate

###
estimate for change in risk over time in a population at risk

calculated as a number of people developing the health outcome divided by total time at risk for the population

used for dynamic populations because it takes into account individual time at risk (person time)

13

##
At the initial examination in the framingham study, CHD was found in 10/1000 men age 40-44 yr and in 10/1000 women age 40-44. based only on the information given here, which of the following conclusion can be made?

1. women have the sme risk of developing CHD as men

2. age specific incindence rate was measured at the initial examination

3. none of the choices

4. the prevalence of CHD for women is the same as the prevalence of CHD for men

5. The incidence proportion of CHD in women was greater than for men

### 4. the prevalence of CHD for women is the same as the prevelence for CHD for men

14

##
In a work place with 300 empployees, the following occurrences of new cases of respiratory distress was observed over 3 months: end of mo 1: 10 cases; end of mo 2: 15 cases; end of month 3: 25 cases. Assumes for the calculation of the incidence rate over the 3 month time period that all cases occurd on last day of month. Which of the following values for peron-month should be used in denominator?

1. 865 person mon

2. 675

3. 900

4. 300

###
NOT 300

900

15

##
We want to compare the risk of deveoping diabetes btw brookings and Sioux Falls in 2010. which measure of association would be best for this?

1. rate ratio

2. incidence rate

3. prevalence ratio

4. proportionate mortality ratio

5. a spot mat tat records all existing cases of dm in 2010

###
NOT incidence rate

rate ratio

16

##
Which of the following best describes the risk difference?

1. The risk for the exposed population minus the risk for the comparison population

2. The risk difference divided by the risk for the exposed population

3. The risk for the exposed population divided by the risk for the comparison population

4. The relative effect divided by the risk for the comparison population

### 1. The risk for the exposed popuation minus the risk for the comparison population

17

##
A newspaper claims yoga decreases risk of hair loss by 30%. what is the rate ratio that would correspond to this decrease?

1. none of these

2. 3

3. 0.3

4. 1.3

5. 0.7

###
NOT 1.3

0.7

18

##
Which of the following choices is the numerator for the annual prevalence of diabetes for sd in 2010

1. number of people who have dm on 1.1.10 and number of new cases in SD in year 2010

2. total number of new cases in sd in yr 2010

3. total number of people with dm in sd at start of yr 2010

4. none of these

5. number of people who have dm on 1.1.10 and number of deaths due to dm in sd in yr 2010

###
NOT "none of these"

1

19

## which of measures listed below would be best to eval the risk of adhd varies in sd school districts

### adhd incidence rates

20

##
The numerator for annual death rate from heart diseasse in us wome would include

1. none

2. us women living with hd t/o yr

3. people with hd on first day of yr

4. deaths due to hd among us women during the yr

5. new cases of hd among us women occur during yr

###
NOT us women livin with hd t/o year

4

21

## CDC aids

### incidence rate increased bc numerator increased

22

## rate ratio of 20 can have interpretation

### exposed population has a much higher incidence rate than reference population

23

## which of the following is the highest value

### 100000 per 100000

24

##
In a work place with 300 empployees, the following occurrences of new cases of respiratory distress was observed over 3 months: end of mo 1: 10 cases; end of mo 2: 15 cases; end of month 3: 25 cases. Assumes for the calculation of the incidence rate over the 3 month time period that all cases occurd on last day of month. Which of the following is the approximate incidence rate for the 3 month time period?

60/1000

90/1000

35/1000

100/1000

###
NOT 35/1000

60/1000

25