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Flashcards in Module 1 Terminology & Theory Deck (30):

What is the definition of motor development?

Study of change in motor behavior over time, including typical trajectories of behavior across the lifespan, the processes that underlie the changes we see, and factors that influence motor behavior


What are the 3 domains of human development?

cognitive, social, and motor


What does age appropriate mean?

Reflects trajectory of skills and behavior at any particular age; usually given as a range (i.e. 10-12 months)


What is individual appropriate?

Reflects part in one's life influenced by innate capacities, as well as experiences and context and culturally defined roles


What is chronological age?

Time that has elapsed since birth


What is corrected age?

Time since birth minus gestation


What is maturation?

Full or maximal development of specific biological processes; do NOT use/outdated term


What is cephalocaudal?

Tendency for early embryonic/fetal growth, development, and early motor skill control to emerge from head to tail


What is proximodistal

Tendency for early embryonic/fetal growth, development, and early motor skill control to emerge from the center - outward


What is differentiation?

Progression from gross to more precise and well-controlled movement patterns


What is integration?

Process of combining simpler movement components into more complex behaviors


What is the process of behavior?

The movement trajectory and/or the behavioral pattern that causes a particular outcome


What is the product of behavior?

Accomplishment of goal and/or measurable outcome


What is an example of a qualitative component of developmental change?

First steps - over time, they spent more time in standing and moving along the couch or walking with dog but holding onto dog.


What are qualitative vs. quantitative components of developmental change?

Qualitative: subjective; how change is occurring
Quantitative: objective measurements


What is an example of a quantitative component of developmental change?

How many steps is the infant performing each day? (Assisted and cruising steps)


What are the 6 components of developmental change?

1. Qualitative and quantitative
2. Trends may be sequential
3. Cumulative
4. Our systems strive toward optimization
5. Multifactorial influence behaviors
6. Individual


When is the embryonic time period of prenatal?

Conception to 8 weeks


When is the fetal time period of prenatal?

8 weeks to birth


When is the neonatal period of infancy?

Birth to 1 month


When is the infancy period?

Birth to 1 year (or until they walk)


When is toddlerhood?

1-2 years


When is early childhood?

2-5 years/preschool


When is middle childhood? When is late childhood?

Middle: 5-7 years
Late: 7-9.5 years (or puberty onset)


What is adolescence to frail elder mostly based on?

Social behaviors


What is the neurophysiological theory of development?

Way to assess child's development in different means; to establish developmental norms. Extensive list of behaviors produced by infants and children to understand how they began to sit independently, etc.


What are some limitations of the neurophysiological theory of development?

Each child is different - ages are more guidelines but not set in stone
Doesn't take skipped stages into account
Assumption that biological responses take over experience


Why is the neurophysiological theory beneficial?

Provides general perspective on when to become concerned as clinicians


What is the dynamic systems theory?

Movement patterns emerge as a function of the ever-changing constraints and affordances experienced; significant application across many disciplines


What are the limitations of the dynamic systems theory?

All components are equally important/none considered the #1 priority for causing/controlling movement
Ex: See a stroke patient once a week and have to choose a few things to focus on - what do you pick?