Module 10 Ants, Bees, and Wasps Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 10 Ants, Bees, and Wasps Deck (21):
1

ants, bees, and wasps taxonomy

order Hymenoptera
suborder Apocrita

2

family Apidae

honey bee and bumble bee

3

family Vespidae

wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets

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family Formicidae

ants

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hymenoptera anatomy

small to large
wings: hamuli - modified second pair of wings; hooks that connects other two wings together
abdomen: propodeum (fused with thorax), petiole (narrowed waist), faster (enlarged terminal segment)

6

ants social castes

queens: winged but lose wings after mating
males: winged, die after mating
workers: all female

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hymenoptera development

holometabolous
facultative arrhenotoky (Queen's choice): males develop from unfertilized eggs, females from fertilized
number of queens vary: polygyny (multiple) and monogyny (single)

8

venom apparatus

venom gland: venom production
venom sac: venom storage
stinger/ovipositor: venom distribution (only in females)

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types of hymenoptera venom

1. small, nonproteinaceous molecules (

10

ant venom

function: defense, prey capture, aggregation, trail marking
components: mainly proteinaceous (except for fire ants), alkaloid component (solenopsin) causes blistering after sting

11

vespid (wasps) venom

function: cause pain, alarm pheromones
components: serotonin and kinins (cause pain), mastoparans (mast-cell degranulating peptides), and neurotoxins

12

honey bee venom

sting autonomy: "self severing," fatal, recurved barbs leave female genitalia behind
components: phospholipase, hyaluronidase, melittin (ruptures RBC)

13

red imported fire ant
native species

Solenopsis geminata (Texas), S. xyloni, S. aurea

14

red imported fire ant
imported species

Solenopsis invicta (RIFA), S. richteri (BIFA)

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importance of RIFA

highly invasive
community disruption
extreme damage to agriculture
millions of dollars spent annually in damage, treatment, and control

16

human response to RIFA stings

fiery burning sensation, wheal and flare, sterile pustules in response to solenopsis, itching
generally more allergic to worker ants
2% of people have serious allergic reactions

17

harvester ants

Pogonomyrmex spp.
3 on pain scale (more painful than FA but usually only get stung with one instead of hundreds)
nest is marked by large void and surrounded by pebbles
seed feeders

18

solitary wasps families

Family Mutillidae - velvet ants or cow killers
Family Pompilidae - spider wasps or tarantula hawk
Family Sphecidae - mud daubers and cicada killers

19

social wasp family and species

Family Vespidae
1. yellowjackets - Dolichovespula and vespula spp
2. hornets - vespa crabro
3. paper wasps - polistes spp (most common)

20

social bees family and species

Family Apidae
1. bumble bees - Bombus spp (nonagressive)
2. honey bees - Apis spp (aggressive)
-Apis mellifera: common HB
-Apis mellifera scutellata: Africanized HB

21

prevention and control

avoidance (protective clothing)
awareness
insecticides: aerosols, exterminator
if allergic: epi-pen, notification if you get stung