Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (48):
What is motor control?
An area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement.
What are behavioral aspects?
How we learn and adopt to movement.
What are the motor control stages?
Stimulus, identification, response selection, response programming, movement output.
What are the two different types of motor programming?
Open-loop motor control theory
Closed-loop motor control theory
What is open-loop motor control theory?
Absence of peripheral feedback.
Usually movement or action does not have time for feedback
What is closed-loop motor control theory?
Feedback-based motor control
Who invented the reflex theory?
Neurophysiologist Sir Charles Sherrington
What is the Reflex Theory?
It is a stimulus-response sequence or we move as a response to a stimulus.
What are the three limitations for the Reflex Theory?
It doesn't consider voluntary movements
Some movements happen way too fast for feedback.
It doesn't consider the variability of the responses to the stimuli (if it's truly a reflex there would only be one response).
Who invented the Hierarchical Theory?
Hughlings Jackson- English neurologist studying epilepsy and speech disorders.
What is Hierarchical Theory?
A top-down CNS progression with three primary levels.
What are the three levels of the Hierarchical Theory?
High: cerebrum-brain, higher processing
Middle: cerebellum-sensory motor, motor planning, basal ganglia
Who invented the System Theory?
Russian Neurophysiologist Nikolai Bernstein
What is the System Theory?
Distributed model of control with degrees of freedom.
You don't always have one section at a time. The brain works together in all levels. Our brain is dynamic and adaptable. Our brain has different ways to adapt to different situations.
What is motor learning?
A set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled behavior.
What is motor learning dependent on?
Patient familiarity and past experience with the task.
What is saving?
measuring the ability of a person to learn something and the ability to learn things faster the second time.
What are the motor learning stages?
Cognitive-what to do
Associative-how to do
Autonomous-how to succeed
What is closed-loop motor learning theory?
Closed-loop system using perceptual trace and reference for correctness
What is Schema motor learning theory?
Slow movements are feedback-based
Fast movements are program-based
What are the two different types of motor function recovery?
What is spontaneous recovery?
Diaschisis- temporary change to the brain that tends to resolve over time (3-4 weeks)
What is function-induced recovery?
What is vicariance?
learning programs are not just in one place. If one program is under-utilized before, it can take over for the injured more utilized area.
What is redundancy?
We have parallel systems in the brain. We have a backup system if the primary area becomes injured.
What is functional re-organization/substitution?
Areas in the brain that didn't have anything to do with movement or action before can learn how to make the movement after the primary area is damaged.
Who invented the Schema motor learning theory?
What is the clinical sequencing order?
What are clinical measurements?
Retention and retention interval
Resistance to contextual change
What is the clinical measurement "performance?"
Accuracy, repeatability, time, and benchmarks
What is the clinical measurement "retention and retention interval?"
Interval of time while they are not practicing.
Long retention-hours or days
What is the clinical measurement "generalizability?"
Being able to move a task to a different situation or location
What is the clinical measurement "resistance to contextual change?"
If you are put in a different situation does it throw you off. The inability to adapt.
What are the three clinical intervention philosophies?
Neuromotor development training
What is compensatory training?
Teach the individual to compensate for the weakness with what they have.
What is neuromotor development training?
Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT)- looking at normal movement and applying normal movement with hands on training to patients whose movements are not normal.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) - 3 plane movement. Rotational movement so many systems work at once and stimulate more areas.
What is task-specific training?
Motor learning/task-oriented learning- make specific movements more normal.
What are the steps to strategy development?
Guidance-hands on assistance to do tasks
Active decision making-need to be more cognitively involved
What are the two types of feedbacks?
Intrinsic and extrinsic
What is intrinsic feedback?
Nerves, audible, fatigue, balance
What is extrinsic feedback?
Knowledge of results (KR)-measurable results of something you tested (quantity)
Knowledge of performance (KP)- how well a task was performed (quality)
What are the different types of feedback schedules?
What is summed feedback?
Given at specific intervals (ex- after every other trial)
What is faded feedback?
Feedback that is given less as progress is made
What is bandwidth feedback?
Feedback given in a certain range: either good or bad. (Ex. Outside given error range)
What is delayed feedback?
Feedback given after a 3-seconds delay.
What are the different types of practice types?
Massed vs. distributed practice
Blocked vs. random practice
Practice order: blocked, serial, random
Mental practice/motor imagery
Part vs. whole task practice
Transference of learning
Closed vs. open environments