Module 2 Flashcards Preview

ENG 211 > Module 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (34):
1

linguistic competence

the part of our knowledge of language that is hidden.

2

linguistic performance

the way people produce and comprehend language

3

performance error

being unable to remember a word, mispronouncing something, or jumbling words in a sentence. error in speaking.

4

speech communication chain

the numerous steps that must be carried out in order to communicate an idea from one person to another.

5

speech communication chain steps

information source (transmitter) -> signal -> receiver -> destination.

6

noise

interference in the chain that prevents the success of communication

7

lexicon

collection of all the words an individual knows

8

mental grammar

rules we know about our language

9

language variation

mental grammars vary among different speakers. no two people will form the same two sentences

10

descriptive grammar

contains rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers linguistic performances

11

evidence that writing and language are not the same

1.writing must be taught
2.writing can be edited
3.neurolinguistic evidence
4.archeological evidence

12

reasons some people believe writing to be superior to speech

1.writing can be edited therefore "perfected"
2.writing must be taught
3.writing is more physically stable (can be saved for long periods of time)

13

prescriptive grammar

socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" ways to use language

14

prescribe

rules that tell you how to speak or write. something that is given to you like a prescription from a doctor you are told to take it

15

Charles Hockett's nine design features (necessary for a communication system to be considered a language)

1.mode of communication
2.semanticity
3.pragmatic function
4.interchangeability
5.cultural transmission
6.arbitrariness
7.discreteness
8.displacement
9.productivity

16

mode of communication

means by which messages are transmitted

17

semanticity

property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning or function

18

pragmatic function

communication must serve some useful purpose

19

interchangeability

ability of individuals to both transmit & receive messages

20

cultural transmission

there are aspects of language that can only be acquired through communication interaction with other users of the system

21

arbitrariness

connection between form and meaning

22

linguistic sign

combination between word and meaning

23

convention

a certain group of sounds goes with a particular meaning

24

nonarbitrariness

form represents meaning directly

25

iconic

picture like

26

onomatopoeia

words that are imitative of natural sounds or have meanings that are associated with such sounds of nature (ex. Splat)

27

conventionalized

form is not an exact copy but sounds similar to the natural noise

28

sound symbolism

certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sounds but by being evocative of a particular meaning

29

discreteness

the property of a language that allows us to combine together discrete units in order to create larger communicative units

30

displacement

ability of a language to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that aren't present in space or time while speakers are communicating. (talking about the color red while not looking at it)

31

productivity

languages capacity for novel messages to be built up out of discrete units (has to have recombinable units)

32

modality

mode of communication which every language must have

33

myths about signed languages

1.signed language is not derived from spoken languages
2.sign languages are manual codes
3.there is only one sign language that is used all over the world
4.sign language doesn't have an internal structure

34

differences between codes and languages

1. a code is an artificially constructed system for representing a natural language it borrows it's structure from the natural language it represents
2.signed languages evolve naturally and independently of spoken languages
3.codes are structurally distinct from each other and from spoken languages
4.codes never have native speakers