Flashcards in Module 2 - Goal directed behaviour Deck (34):
Describe Freud's theory of motivation?
Motivation springs from biological drives. All drives are biological. The aim of all drives is the same: to reduce tension.
The classic psychoanalytic theory states that humans are motivated by the buildup and transfer of energy between the id (the source of drives and desires), the ego, and the superego. The accumulation of energy in the id is experienced as tension and is unpleasant. The discharge of this energy occurs when the person engages in some tension-reducing behaviour, and is experienced as pleasure.
One implication of the psychoanalytic theory of motivation is that approach and avoidance are essentially the same thing, or rather two sides of the same coin; when one is behaving in such a way that avoids pain (reduces tension) one is by definition acquiring pleasure (reduces tension).
What is Freud's "Pleasure Principle"?
The organism seeks pleasure and nothing else.
What is Hobbes Hedonistic Theory of Action?
We perform acts that are associated with pleasure and refrain from the ones that are associated with displeasure.
What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?
The attainment of satisfying consequences connect the response more firmly to the stimulus situation. Reward strengthens the association and punishment weakens it.
The difference between incentives and goals?
An incentive is a reward offered. It is just a thing.
Once the reward is chosen to motivate a behaviour, it becomes a goal.
Goals are larger and more important in scope than incentives.
Goals have to be cognitively evaluated.
How is Freud's intrapsychic tension different from feeling hungry, thirsty or tired?
Freud suggested that motivation comes from intrapsychic forces: the motives that are not available to us consciously. Intrapsychic tension is different to feeling tired, hungry or thirsty because these are conscious feelings. Intrapsychic tension is about unconscious tension.
What are the biological drives proposed by Freud?
Hunger, thirst, elimination and sex. He saw sex as the most important.
What is operant conditioning?
Behaviour is influenced by reward or punishment.
What is classical conditioning?
Behaviour that is unconscious or unmotivated; a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with something else. Pavlov's dogs is an example. The sound of the bell used to be neutral but now it makes them salivate.
According to operant conditioning, how should I increase a behaviour?
Reward it. If I want to see more of a behaviour, I should reward it.
According to operant condition, how should I reduce a behaviour?
Punish it. If I want to see less of a behaviour, I should punish it.
True or false: phobias are an example of classical conditioning?
True. Soldiers who were caught in clouds of agent orange in Vietnam now fear the colour, a previously neutral stimulus.
What is positive reinforcement?
Providing a positive stimulus.
What is negative reinforcement?
Removing an aversive stimulus.
What is positive punishment?
Increasing something bad.
What is negative punishment?
Taking away something good.
What effects do reinforcement and punishment have on goals?
Positive and negative reinforcement facilitate goal-directed behaviour.
Punishment does not facilitate goal-directed behaviour because it only tells the person what not to do, rather than what to do. If you want to increase a behaviour, you need to reward, not punish.
What kind of reinforcement schedule is the most useful for goal-directed behaviour?
Intermittent variable reinforcement is the most effective. This is more effective than reinforcing every single behaviour. Gambling is an example of the strength of intermittent reinforcements.
If a behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs, then the behaviour is likely only to be carried out when the reinforcement is present. Think of automatic doors. We expect them to open every time. If we come up to them and they don't open, we will try to move about and get them to open, but we will not persist. The behaviours of expecting them to open will be very quickly extinguished by one or two occasions where the reinforcement is not present.
What is learned helplessness?
Behavioural theory has identified a lack of sufficient reward as a demotivating factor; without some sort of reward, one might stop the behaviour altogether. This has been referred to as learned helplessness.
Think about how much more you study when you get good results! The reinforcing good result motivates more and more studying behaviour.
Learned helplessness involves a belief that one is unable to control a situation. My behaviour has no effect on the outcome, so why will I try to change my behaviour? Learned helplessness has been identified as a possible explanation for the behaviour of abused children and battered wives.
What are some consequences of learned helplessness?
Failure to solve problems that are solvable (cognitive deficit, learning difficulties)
Lack of initiation of action; lethargy
Severe emotional disturbances (sadness, hopelessness)
Symptoms (not consequences) or learned helplessness can be similar to depression
Seligman suggested that early experiences of failure might predispose a person to depression, while early mastery experiences could immunise a person against depression
What is incentive value?
Incentive value includes both subjective value (utility) and objective value.
What is incentive delay?
The time delay for receiving an incentive. As the time delay for receiving an incentive becomes greater, the value of the incentive in terms of motivating behaviour becomes smaller.
What is incentive amount?
The higher the amount of incentive, the greater the motivation for the behaviour.
Deci and Ryan have conceptualised extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on opposite ends of a continuum - explain?
Externally-motivated behaviour: performing the behaviour for rewards or to avoid punishment (e.g., I go to work for the money).
Introjected motivation: internalising reasons for behaviour from rewards and punishments to shame and guilt (e.g., I go to work because I would feel ashamed and guilty if I didn't).
Identified regulation: the outcome of the behaviour is valued or useful to the person (I go to work because it is good experience for me to put on my CV).
Integrated regulation: the behaviour is now part of the person's self concept: I go to work because that's what I do; I'm a clinical psychologist.
Intrinsically motivated behaviour: the individual derives pleasure just from performing the behaviour. I go to work as a clinical psychologist because I love it and it makes me happy.
Can behaviour be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated at the same time?
Yes. I go to work because I love being a clinical psychologist but I also get paid for it.
What happens when people attribute behaviour to external rewards, rather than intrinsic motivation?
A series of studies by Deci and Ryan showed that when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were involved in a task, what ultimately determined performance on the task was the extent to which the individual thought that the external rewards were related to the task. If the person attributed their performance on the task to the receipt of the reward, then intrinsic motivation declined and the behaviour would not be performed in the absence of the reward.
Wiersma (1992) showed that while extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic interest, they can increase performance.
What are the different types of intrinsic motivation?
Social: sense of belonging or imitation of a role model
Biological: increase or decrease arousal, activate senses, decrease hunger, thirst - maintain homeostasis
Cognitive: maintain interest, develop meaning or understanding, remove doubt or risk, solve a problem, make a decision
Affective: feel good, stop feeling bad, feel safe, increase self-esteem, maintain optimism and enthusiasm
Conative: achieve our goals or dreams, maintain self-efficacy, take control of one's life
Spiritual: understand one's purpose in life, connect to the ultimate unknown
What is LA Level of Aspiration?
LA Level of Aspiration is what one would like to attain. I would like to attain a HD in PSY2020.
10 to 25% probability
What is LE Level of Expectation?
LE Level of Expectation is what I expect to attain. I think I will end up with an A in PSY2020.
LE and LA
LA and LE change with actual performance as we adjust our aspirations and expectations with performance feedback
LE is more sensitive to changes
LA vs LE = "performance discrepancy"
Performance discrepancy may be a better motivator than the goal itself
High LA and LE can increase performance
What is an nAch person?
nAch = Need for Achievement
McClelland believed that people's score on nAch predicted their occupational choice. nAch-ers tend to choose entrepreneurial/business jobs.
nAch-ers are motivated by success as a frame of reference; they have a high need for achievement.
nAch-ers set moderate goals and need concrete, rapid feedback of success. Careers in science and teaching offer a different kind of feedback and rewards and are not so attractive to nAch types.
What is an fF person?
fF = Fear of Failure
People high on fF are motivated to avoid failure, rather than achieve success (like nAch people).
People high in fF will choose easy tasks with a high probability of success, or very hard tasks about which the failure might be excused.
How does McClelland test for nAch and fF?
He used Murray's Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).