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Flashcards in module 3.3 Deck (44)
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1

Our brains respond to plant chemicals because

plants use chemicals similar to neurotransmitters
animals evolved from plants
plants have evolved neuron-like cells
those are the only chemicals that are stable at common environmental temperatures.

plants use chemicals similar to neurotransmitters

2

A drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a(n)

agonist
antagonist
stimulant
protagonist

agonist

3

A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a(n)

agonist
antagonist
depressant
protagonist

antagonist

4

Which effect would be considered antagonistic?

blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters
stimulating the release of neurotransmitters
blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
interfering with the breakdown of neurotransmitters

blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters

5

Which effect would be considered to be agonistic?

blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters
stimulating the release of neurotransmitters
blocking the postsynaptic receptors
mimicking enzymes that break down neurotransmitters

stimulating the release of neurotransmitters

6

To say that a drug has an affinity for a particular type of receptor is to imply that the drug

breaks down neurotransmitter chemicals at that receptor site
will always excite the postsynaptic receptor site
will always inhibit the postsynaptic receptor
binds to that receptor

binds to that receptor

7

The key into lock analogy best describes

a drug's efficacy
a drug's affinity for a receptor
breakdown at a receptor site
a drug's reuptake

a drug's affinity for a receptor

8

With respect to drugs effects, "efficacy" means the tendency of a drug to

have inhibitory effects
have excitatory effects
attach to a receptor
activate a receptor

activate a receptor

9

What is one factor in determining whether a drug that readily attaches to a receptor will have agonistic or antagonistic effects?

its affinity for a receptor
its efficacy
the neurotransmitter that normally attaches to that receptor
its electrical charge

its efficacy

10

If a drug has high affinity and low efficacy, what effect does it have on the postsynaptic neuron

antagonistic
agonistic
proactive
destructive

antagonistic

11

If a drug has high affinity and high efficacy, what effect does it have on the postsynaptic neuron?

ptsantagonistic
agonistic
proactive
destructive

agonistic

12

Why do the effects of certain transmitters, such as serotonin, vary from one synapse to another?

The brain releases different forms of serotonin at different synapses
It depends whether it is an original serotonin at different synapses
the width of the synaptic cleft varies from one synapse to another
there are several kinds of postsynaptic receptors for serotonin

there are several kinds of postsynaptic receptors for serotonin

13

The brain area often linked with drug addiction is the

nucleus accumbens
whole limbic system
frontal lobes
brain stem

nucleus accumbens

14

Which neurotransmitter has been repeatedly connected with addictive drugs?

epinephrine
acetylcholine
serotonin
dopamine

dopamine

15

Most habit forming drugs activate which type of synapse?

acetylcholine
opiate
GABA
dopamine

dopamine

16

A drug that produces excitement, alertness, elevated mood, and decreased fatigue is referred to as a

stimulant
depressant
hallucinogen
tranquilizer

stimulant

17

The presynaptic terminal ordinarily reabsorbs dopamine through a protein called a

dopamine reabsorber
dopamine releaser
dopamine transporter
dopamine agonist

dopamine transporter

18

At the synapse, amphetamine

blocks the break down of dopamine
increases the release of dopamine from the presynaptic terminal
increases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors
decreases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors

increases the release of dopamine from the presynaptic terminal

19

At the synapse, amphetamine

blocks the break down of dopamine
decreases the release of dopamine from the postsynaptic terminal
inhibits the dopamine transporter
decreases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors

inhibits the dopamine transporter

20

At the synapse, cocaine

increases the synthesis of dopamine
blocks the breakdown of dopamine
accelerates the breakdown of dopamine
blocks the reuptake of dopamine

blocks the reuptake of dopamine

21

Why do cocaine and amphetamines produce similar effects?

both increase the activity of the sodium-potassium pump
both increase the presence of dopamine in the synapses
both cause a weakening of the blood brain barrier
the brain converts both of them into acetylcholine

both increase the presence of dopamine in the synapses

22

The main difference between methylphenidate(Ritalin), when taken as a medication for attention deficit disorder, and cocaine, when taken as a drug of abuse, is that methylphenidate:

inhibits receptors that cocaine excites
produces the same effects more slowly
attaches to a different set of receptors
increases metabolic rate whereas cocaine decreases it

produces the same effects more slowly

23

At high doses, MDMA

destroys axons that release acetylcholine
destroys axons that release serotonin
stimulates axons that release acetylcholine
destroys axons in humans, but not in laboratory rats

destroys axons that release serotonin

24

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is also known as?

extasy
crack
angel dust
ganja

extasy

25

The stimulant effects of MDMA are likely due to actions at ________ synapses, while the hallucinogenic effects are likely due to actions at ____________ synapses

dopamine, nitric oxide
neuropeptide Y, serotonin
dopamine, serotonin
serotonin, dopamine

dopamine, serotonin

26

Nicotine directly stimulates receptors in the central nervous system and at nerve-muscle junctions. These nicotinic receptors are also receptors for which neurotransmitter?

glutamate
dopamine
serotonin
acetylcholine

acetylcholine

27

A drug that relaxes a person and makes them less sensitive to pain is most likely a(n)

opiate
hallucinogen
stimulant
cannabinoid

opiate

28

Pert and Snyder's discovery that opiates bind with certain receptors led to what other discovery?

functions of inhibitory synapses
the endogenous chemicals that bind with those receptors
other classes of receptors with which opiates will bind
more effective ways of manufacturing the drugs

the endogenous chemicals that bind with those receptors

29

Opiate drugs bind to receptors in the brain for

endorphins
catecholamines
indolamines
monoamines

endorphins

30

What effect do opiate drugs have on dopamine

They increase the synthesis of dopamine
They directly increase the release of dopamine
They indirectly increase the release of dopamine by blocking transmitters that normally block dopamine
They mimic dopamine

They indirectly increase the release of dopamine by blocking transmitters that normally block dopamine