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Flashcards in module 3.2 Deck (49)
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1

Loewi demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemicals. He did this by:

applying adrenaline directly into the heart muscle
collecting fluid from a stimulated frog's heart, transferring it to another frog's heart, and measuring the heart rate
measuring the speed of a dog's reflexes while the dog was under the influence of various drugs.
applying an extract of marijuana in eye drops and discovering that it dialated the pupils.

collecting fluid from a stimulated frog's heart, transferring it to another frog's heart, and measuring the heart rate

2

The correct sequence of chemical events at a synapse is:

reuptake, release, transport, synthesis
synthesis, transport, release, reuptake
transport, release, reuptake, synthesis
recycle, reuse, release, return

synthesis, transport, release, reuptake

3

________ are a category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives.

Neuropeptides
Acetylcholine
Monoamines
Purines

Purines

4

What is the most unusual thing about the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)?

it is found only in sensory neurons
it is both exictatory and inhibitory
it is normally a poison gas
it is also known as "laughing gas"

it is normally a poison gas

5

What provides the building blocks for synthesizing all neurotransmitters?

substances found in the diet
breakdown products of DNA
breakk down products formed from other transmitters
methane and ethanol

substances found in the diet

6

The building blocks for the majority of neurotransmitters are:

amino acids
nitric oxide
sugars
carbohydrates

amino acids

7

Which of teh following is NOT a catecholamine?
1 pts
dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
serotonin

serotonin

8

A new drug is discovered that affects the activity of enzymes. Which of the following stages of synaptic transmission is most likely to be affected?

synthesis
Diffusion
action potential
release

synthesis

9

After a meal rich in the amino acid tryptophan, which neurotransmitter level would be increaed the most?

dopamine
endorphin
serotonin
nitric oxide

serotonin

10

If you eat a food containing tryptophan, what can you consume with it to increase its entry into the brain?

phenylaline
carbohydrates
fats
thiamine

carbohydrates

11

Acetylcholine is synthesized in the

postsynaptic terminal
presynaptic terminal
cell body
dendrites

presynaptic terminal

12

The presynaptic terminal stores high concentrations of the neurotransmitter molecules in

axons
vesicles
peptides
dendrites

vesicles

13

Large neurotransmitters are synthesized in the:

postsynaptic terminal
presynaptic terminal
cell body
dendrites

cell body

14

Although slower than an action potential, synaptic transmission is still relatively fast because

the synaptic cleft is very narrow
sodium ions are transported quickly
neurotransmitters diffuse faster than electricity
EPSPs travel faster than IPSPs

the synaptic cleft is very narrow

15

High concentrations of all neurotransmitters, except for NO, are stored in the

presynaptic terminals
postsynaptic terminals
axons
cell body

presynaptic terminals

16

When an action potential reaches the end of an axon, it evokes teh release of neurotransmitters by opening __________ channels in the axon terminal.

chloride
bicarbonate
calcium
oxygen

calcium

17

The neuron excretes neurotransmitter through its membrane by a process called

Dale's principle
exocytosis
endocytosis
voltage-dependent flow

exocytosis

18

What is the synaptic cleft?

teh gap between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron
a packet that stores neurotransmitter molecules
a subthreshold depolarization
the storage location for calcium ions

teh gap between the presynaptic neuron and the

19

what happens when a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic cell?

it causes calcium to rush into the presynaptic neuron
it causes calcium to rush into the postsynaptic neuron
the neurotransmitter passively spreads across the synaptic cleft
the neurotransmitter is actively transported across the synaptic cleft

the neurotransmitter passively spreads across the synaptic cleft

20

In most cases how many neurotransmitters can activate a postsynaptic neuron?

only one neurotransmitter
any neurotransmitter
several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters
several transmitters, wich must be received simultaneously

several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters

21

In most cases how many neurotransmitters can activate a postsynaptic neuron?

only one neurotransmitter
any neurotransmitter
several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters
several transmitters, wich must be received simultaneously

several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters

22

The main advantage of a neuron releasing more than one neurotransmitter is that

if it runs out of one, it has others
it can release different transmitters on different occasions
it can send more complex messages
it can release one from the axon's terminal and one from a location along the axon

it can send more complex messages

23

what determines the effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic neuron?

the speed the action potential traveled down the axon
the number of branches of the presynaptic axon
the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
distance between the synapse and the cell body

the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane

24

A neurotransmitter receptor is

a protein embeded in the membrane
a channel in the membrane
found only in the soma
activated similarly for all neurotransmitters

a protein embeded in the membrane

25

A receptor can directly open a channel exerting a(n) _______ effect or it can produce slower but longer _______ effects

gated; metabolitic
ionotropic; gated
metabotropic; ionotropic
ionotropic; metabotropic

ionotropic; metabotropic

26

Glutimate opens sodium gates, enabling sodium ions to enter the postsynaptic cell. What is this effect called?

metabotropic
ionotropic
modulatory
orthodromic

ionotropic

27

The neurotransmitter GABA exerts ________ effects, and its effects are almost always ________.

ionotropic; excitatory
ionotropic; inhibitory
metabotropic; excitatory
metabotropic; inhibitory

ionotropic; inhibitory

28


depolarize the postsynaptic membrane
hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane
may hyperpolarize or depolarize the postsynaptic membrane
enhance the reabsorption of neurotransmitters

may hyperpolarize or depolarize the postsynaptic membrane

29

Ionotropic effects are characterized by:

rapid short lived effects
rapid long lasting effects
excitatory only
inhibitory only

rapid short lived effects

30

Compared to ionotropic effects, metabotropic effects are

quicker and briefer
slower and briefer
quicker and long-lasting
slower and longer-lasting

slower and longer-lasting