What five developmental disabilities in particular may, at times, benefit from a communication device?
Cerebral Palsy (CP), Intellectual Disabilities(ID), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Deaf-Blind (dual sensory impaired), Developmental Apraxia of Speech
Which one has the strongest motor disability component?
Which one is a motor speech problem mainly?
Which one is mainly an interaction/communication disorder?
Which one is mainly a cognitive disorder?
Which one is a sensory impairment, and what senses does it affect?
Dual sensory impairment (blind, deaf)
What barriers exist when considering AAC interventions with intellectual disabilities?
Cognitive functioning, academics, language function, opportunity factors, problem behaviors, symbolic vs non-symbolic communicator
What levels of support may be needed for people with intellectual disabilities?
Intermittent (as needed), limited (time periods), extensive (regularly), pervasive (almost all opportunities)
What are the six skill areas related to autism that can be enhanced with AAC.
functional communication, develop appropriate social skills, play skills, cognitive development (generalization), positive behavioral supports, functional academic skills.
What skills form the basis of pragmatics?
Imitation, joint attention, natural gesture communication
Developmental apraxia of speech can best be enhanced with a multimodal approach. What are some examples of multimodal approach to communication?
Use for supplementation of speech, speech breakdowns, literacy and academics, and practice for speech production.
What is impacted when an individual has acquired deaf-blindness vs. congenital?
Congenital remain at pre-linguistic stage, poor speech intelligibility, while acquired usually linguistic, have usually understood speech
Why is collaboration important when creating an intervention plan?
Give view of the “whole” person and when/what for the AAC will be used
Know the 3 components to assessing the environment
assess settings, opportunities, and partners
Why is it important to identify specific opportunities that occur frequently in the user’s daily life?
This is when device will be used the most
Why is it important to identify specific communication partners, and include them in the intervention schedule?
This gives the partner accountability and direction of when to assess the use of the AAC at a specific time
What is the ultimate intervention goal you are trying to achieve when implementing AAC?
Participation (doing things, communicating with others with least amount of assistance, communicative competence)
Know the 11 essential communication skills and ideas for short term goals within these areas
participate, indicate, social acceptability, emotional control, unaided, aided, vary message functions, intelligibility, attention skills, behavioral response skills, contextual response skills
Understand the 7 point rating scale that is used to measure the user’s independence in the essential communication areas (current levels projected levels)
7-6 established, 5 (2/10 attempts), 4 (4/10 attempts), 3 (6/10 attemtps)- emerging, 2 (8/10 attempts) potential, 1 (total prompting) potential N/O- no opportunity
What are partner strategies and what is the purpose?
Good to have b/c gives partners some training on what to do with the device, are use to help enforce the use of the device for communication, ex: take turns, wait, model actions, be animated (enjoyment)
What 3 characteristics are associated with beginning communicators?
Primarily nonsymbolic modes of communication, learning to use aided or unaided symbols to represent meaning, use nonelectronic communication displays or SGD for participation/early communication
What are 3 principles for addressing problematic behaviors?
Functional equivalence (teach new behavior for same purpose), efficiency and effectiveness, goodness-of-fit
What are 3 initial skills of communication?
Take turns, press message to take a turn (request), wait for partner to take turn
Why is it so important for play to become the goal vs. a sticker or “good job”?
because play is more meaningful and is more of a reward
Know which instructional strategies have been found effective with each of the 5 language domains
Syntax- strategy instruction model
Pragmatics- conversational coaching
Semantics- aided language stimulation
Semantics, syntax, morophology- system for augmenting language or aided language modeling
Phonology- incidental learning(all), explicit instruction (all)
Explain explicit instruction
teaching done in small trials that have stimulus, prompts, correct response, reinforce, repeated w/faded prompts
explain incidental learning
environment arranged to create communication opportunities (facilitator provides instruction/cues/prompts to elicit the target
What are some instructional techniques for choice making and requesting?
Errorless learning, PECS, generalized requesting approach, general case instruction
What social interaction skills do people who with CCN need access to on AAC device?
Basic introduction, initiations, partner focused questions, comments, regulatory phrases, conversational repair (repetitions, modifications)
When a student shows significant potential with an overlay device, what rationale could you provide for getting him a dynamic screen device?
A dynamic screen allows the student access to more words and phrases without needing assistance to change the overlays. A dynamic screen device allows for more communication with more independence
What is the purpose of PECS?
encourages interaction and requesting
What preparation needs to occur before implementing phases of PECS?
Determine reinforcing items and non-reinforcing items, develop hierarchy of reinforcements, stet the stage for communication
What are the prerequisites to use PECS?
There are no prerequisites required
What 4 areas of the classroom need to be assessed to determine need for classwide accommodations?
? Instructional arrangements, teacher expectations, existing supports for language comprehension, existing vocabulary and response supports
When considering instructional arrangement, how will different arrangements impact AAC in the classroom?
Teacher led whole classroom, teacher led small group, teacher led sharing time, cooperative learning groups or stations, one-to-one instruction, self directed seat work…these all have different set-ups in the classroom and can affect each student in that classroom
What are the 4 steps for planning and implementing student specific instruction?
Construct student profile, develop an IEP, planning lessons that include all students, identify individual accommodations
Explain the Universal Design for Learning, and 3 principles for implementing in classroom
encourages teacher to set unit goals and design activities that are inclusive from the beginning…allows for accommodations from the beginning
1. Recognition learning (multiple flexible methods of presentation)
2. Strategic learning (provides multiple flexible methods of expression)
3. Affective learning (provides multiple flexible methods of engagement)
What is the least dangerous assumption, why is this important?
Assuming competence has the least dangerous consequence rather than assuming incompetence. Goals that are too high are better than too low, if too low then limits teachers’ expectations and students’ progress will lack