Module 6 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Exploring Creation with Biology > Module 6 Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 6 Vocabulary Deck (45):
1

Absorption

The transport of dissolved substances into cells

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Digestion

The breakdown of absorbed substances

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Respiration

The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy

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Excretion

The removal of soluble waste materials

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Egestion

The removal of nonsoluable waste materials

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Secretion

The release of biosynthesized substances

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Homeostasis

Maintaining the status quo

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Reproduction

Producing more cells

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Cytology

The study of cells

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Cell Wall

A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plants and bacteria cells

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Middle Lamella

The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

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Plasma Membrane

The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings

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Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which all of the organelles are suspended

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Ions

Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons

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Cytoplasmic Streaming

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents

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Mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

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Lysosome

The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

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Ribosomes

Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell

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Rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

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Smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes

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Leucoplasts

Organelles that store starches or oils

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Chromoplasts

Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis

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Central Vacuole

A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes

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Waste Vacuoles

Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion

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Phagocytosis

The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

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Phagocytic Vacuole

A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs

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Pinocytic Vesicle

Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane

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Secretion Vesicle

Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released

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Golgi Bodies

The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell

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Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

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Nuclear Membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

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Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

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Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cells together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in its movement

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Microfilaments

Fine, threadlike proteins found i the cell's cytoskeleton

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Intermediate Filaments

Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments

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Phospholipid

A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group

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Passive Transport

Movement of molecule through the plasma membrane according to dictates of osmosis or diffusion

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Active Transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.

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Isotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

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Hypertonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution

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Plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water

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Cytolysis

The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure

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Hypotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution

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Activation Energy

Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going