Module 7: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 7: Respiratory System Deck (193)
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Respiratory System

UPPER AIRWAYS - Nose, Sinuses, Larynx

LOWER AIRWAYS - Trachea, Airways, Alveoli

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Nose: FUNCTIONS

warm (cold dry air damages the respiratory epithelium),
humidify (add water droplets to the air going in,
filter (prevent large particles from going in),
smell (olfactory neurons,only neurons capable for reproduction, are found in upper part of the nose),
defense

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- air filled spaces that lightens the skull
- composed of frontal sinuses, maxillary sinus, sphenoid sinus, ethmoid sinus
- Surround nasal passageways

Sinuses

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Functions of Sinuses

1. Lighten skull
2. Offer resonance to voice (improves the speech)

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- last part of the upper airway
- voicebox
- MAJOR STRUCTURES
*Vocal Cords
*Epiglottis, Arytenoids

Larynx

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- Covers the vocal cords during swallowing
- cover the entrance to the trachea during swallowing

Epiglottis, Arytenoids

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- part of the lower airway; airway that leads to the bronchus
- In the trachea, C-shaped cartilages are found

Trachea

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Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles

Trachea >> Main Stem Bronchi >> Lobar Bronchi >> Segmental Bronchi >> Terminal bronchioles >> Respiratory bronchiole Alveoli

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BRONCHI

Right vs Left: Right bronchi is wider, shorter and more vertical
Implication: will be common for aspiration on the RIGHT bronchi

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BRONCHIOLE

Terminal Bronchiole vs Respiratory Bronchiole:

Terminal bronchiole - the distal part of the airway that has no alveoli or alveolar sacs; last part that has no gas exchange

Respiratory Bronchiole is capable of Gas Exchange

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- give rise to bronchopulmonary segment

Segmental Bronchi

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- consists of 8-10 per lung
- will have its own blood and nerve supply

Bronchopulmonary segments

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3 Areas capable of gas exchange

1. Respiratory Bronchioles
2. Alveolar Ducts
3. Alveoli

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- (+) presence of Respiratory Epithelium (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
- Maintains periciliary fluid so that cilia may function
- GOBLET CELLS, SUBMUCOSAL GLANDS
- CLARA CELLS (CLUB CELLS)

Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles

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- Produces Mucus for lubrication
- Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy seen in chronic smokers

GOBLET CELLS, SUBMUCOSAL GLANDS

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- Controversial
- nonciliated cells found in the respiratory epithelium
- May play a role in EPITHELIAL REGENERATION after injury

CLARA CELLS (CLUB CELLS)

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- moves the dust debris towards the mouth
- has a unidirectional movement

Cilia

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COUGH REFLEX

1. 2.5 L of air rapidly inspired
2. Epiglottis closes
3. Abdominal muscles contract
4. Epiglottis opens

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- Similar to cough reflex but applied to nasal passageways (upper respiratory passageways)
- with depression of the uvula to force air to go to the nose
- removes the irritating factor

SNEEZE REFLEX

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- Weighs 1kg
*60% lung tissue
*40% blood
- Alveolar Spaces
- Gas Exchange Area: 70 -80 m2

Lungs

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- Responsible for most of lung’s volume
- Divided by lung interstitium (tissue in between alveolar spaces)

Alveolar Spaces

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Lungs

RIGHT LUNG
- 3 Lobes (Upper, Middle, Lower)
- Oblique Fissure, Horizontal Fissure

LEFT LUNG
- 2 Lobes (Upper, Lower)
- has lingula
- Oblique Fissure

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- VISCERAL PLEURA - closely attach to the lungs
- PARIETAL PLEURA - closely attach to the chest wall
- PLEURAL FLUID

Lungs

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- Found in potential space between the two pleura
- Keeps the 2 pleura together (allows them to slide)
- Has negative pressure

PLEURAL FLUID

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- air inside the pleural space that cause the lungs to expand limitedly during inspiration

Pneumothorax

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- water inside the pleural space

Pleural Effusion

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- pus collection in the pleural space secondary to infection

Empyema

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- 5 x 108 alveoli
- Made up of 2 Cells in a 1:1 ratio
*TYPE I Pneumocytes
*TYPE II Pneumocytes

Alveoli

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- 96-98% of surface area
- For Gas Exchange

TYPE I PNEUMOCYTE

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- 2-4% of surface area
- Small, cuboidal, found at corners of alveoli
- May turn into Type I if needed
- For surfactant production (Decreases surface tension)

TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE