Module #8: Mendelian Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module #8: Mendelian Genetics Deck (21)
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1

True Breeding

If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to it's offspring we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic

2

Allele

One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes

3

Genotype

Two letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait

4

Phenotype

The observable expression of an organism's genes

5

Homozygous genotype

A genotype in which both alleles are identical

6

Heterozygous genotype

A genotype with two different alleles

7

Dominant allele

An allele that will determine the phenotype if just one is present in the genotype

8

Recessive allele

An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele

9

Pedigree

A diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations

10

Monohybrid cross

A cross between two individuals concentrating on only one definable trait

11

Dihybrid cross

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits

12

Autosomes

Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual

13

Sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

14

Antigen

A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody

15

Autosomal inheritance

Inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome

16

Genetic disease carrier

A person who is heterozygous in a recessive genetic disorder

17

Sex linked inheritance

Inheritance of a genetic trait located on the sex chromosome

18

Change in chromosome structure

A situation in which a chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis

19

Mutation

A radical chemical change in one or more alleles

20

Change in chromosome number

A situation in which abnormal cellular events in meiosis lead to either none of a particular chromosome in the gamete or more than one chromosome in the gamete

21

Mendel's principals of genetics

1. The traits of an organism are determined by its genes
2. Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait
3. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes ONLY ONE of it's alleles to it's offspring
4. In each genotype there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele