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Flashcards in Module: Biomechanics Deck (73)
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1

Kinesiology

The study of the human movement

2

Biomechanics

The study of how forces affect a living body

3

Ground reaction force

An equal and opposite external force that is exerted back onto the body by the ground

4

Qualitative analysis

Applying principles of proper technique and combining them with observations in order to make an educated evaluation

5

Quantitative analysis

Taking physical measurements and making mathematical computations to reach a conclusion

6

Anatomic position

Standard posture wherein the body stands upright with the arms beside the trunk, the palms face forward, and the head faces forward.

7

Midline

That which is contained within an imaginary line that splits the body into equal halves

8

Sagittal plane

An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing left and right halves

9

Frontal plane

An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a front half and back half

10

Transverse plane

An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a top half and bottom half

11

Anterior-posterior axis

A straight line that cuts through the body from front to back

12

Longitudinal axis

An imaginary long, straight line that cuts through the body from top to bottom

13

Range of motion

The amount of movement produced by one or multiple joints

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Flexion

A bending at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments decreases

15

Extension

A bending at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments increases

16

Abduction

A body segment is moving away from the midline of the body

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Adduction

A body segment is moving toward the midline of the body

18

Internal rotation

Rotation of a limb or body segment toward the midline of the body

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External rotation

Rotation of a limb or body segment away from the midline of the body

20

Pronation

A triplanar movement that is associated with force reduction

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Supination

A triplanar motion that is associated with force production

22

Flexors

A muscle that produces flexion of a limb or joint

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Extensors

A muscle that produces extension of a limb or joint

24

Abductors

A muscle that produces abduction of a limb or joint

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Adductors

A muscle that produces adduction of a limb or joint

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Pronators

A muscle that produces pronation of a limb or body segment

27

Supinators

A muscle that produces supination of a limb or body segment

28

Prone

Body position where one is lying with the face downward

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Supine

Body position where one is lying on the back and face is upward

30

Triple flexion

A multi joint exercise that involves flexion at the hip, knee, and ankle

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Triple extension

A multi joint exercise that involves extension at the hip, knee, and ankle

32

Static posture

A starting point from which an individual moves

33

Multiplanar

Occurring in more than one plane of motion

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Concentric activation

The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while shortening in length

35

Active force

Muscle tension that is generated by its contractile elements

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Isometric activation

The production of an active force when a muscle

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Eccentric activation

The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while lengthening

38

Isolated function

A muscles primary function. A muscle action produced at a joint when a muscle is being concentrically activated to produce acceleration of a body segment

39

Eccentric function

Action of a muscle when it is generating an eccentric contraction

40

Integrated function

The coordination of muscles to produce, reduce, and stabilize forces in multiple planes for efficient and safe movement

41

Kinetics

Biomechanics term that involves the study of forces

42

Force

A push or pull that can create, stop, or change movement. Force=Mass x Acceleration

43

Mass

The amount of matter in an object or physical body

44

Matter

A substance that has mass and takes up space

45

Acceleration

The speed of an object

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Weight

The amount of force that gravity has on the body

47

Gravity

A force that accelerates an object or mass downward toward the earth's center

48

Lever

A relatively rigid rod or bar that rotates around a fulcrum

49

Torque

The rotary or rotational effect that a force has around an axis

50

Tempo

The amount of time that muscle is actively producing tension during exercise movements

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Repetition tempo

The speed at which each repetition is performed

52

Line of pull

The direction in which a muscle is pulled

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Parallel muscle

Muscle with fibers that are oriented parallel to that muscle's longitudinal axis

54

Pennate muscle

Muscle with fibers that are oriented at an angle to the muscle's longitudinal axis

55

Origin

The relatively stationary attachment site where skeletal muscle attaches begin

56

Insertion

The relatively mobile attachment site

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Tendons

Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force

58

Aponeurosis

A white tendinous sheet that attaches muscle to bone

59

Muscle belly

The mid-region in between the origin and insertion

60

Malalignment

The incorrect or improper alignment of the joints in a body without movements

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Overactive

Referring to a state of having disrupted neuromuscular recruited patterns that lead a muscle to be more active during a joint action

62

Underactive

Referring to the state of having disrupted neuromuscular recruitment patterns that lead a muscle to be relatively less active during a joint action

63

Extrinsic

Located from outside yet act on a structure being considered

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Intrinsic

Located from within and acting directly on a structure being considered

65

Intrinsic core stabilizers

Deep inner muscles behind the superficial abdominals that have a direct effect on stabilizing he lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

66

Retraction

Adduction of the shoulder blades where the shoulder blades move toward the spine

67

Shoulder impingement

When the space between the bone on top of the shoulder (acromion) and the tendons of the rotator cuff rub against each other during arm elevation

68

Pronation of the foot

A combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction

69

Supination of the foot

A combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction

70

Flexibility

The normal extensibility of soft tissue, which allows a joint to be moved through its full range of motion

71

Corrective exercise

The programming process that identifies neuromuscular dysfunction, develops a plan of action, and implements a corrective strategy as a part of an exercise training program

72

Neuromuscular efficiency

When the neuromuscular system allows agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to synergistically produce muscle actions in all three planes of motion

73

Relative flexibility

The human movement system's way of finding the path of least resistance during movement