Module Exam 6: Cerebral Circulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module Exam 6: Cerebral Circulation Deck (94)
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Anterior Circulation is from the

Internal Carotid Artery

1

Posterior Circulation is from the

Basilar Artery

2

Joins the two Anterior Cerebral Arteries

Anterior Communicating Artery

3

Joins the Internal Carotid Artery with the Basilar circulation

Posterior Communicating Artery

4

Normally communicating arteries have little _____ unless occlusion in one artery occurs.

Blood flow

5

Circle of Willis variants: the complete circle is seen in only ______ of individuals.

20-25%

6

Circle of Willis variants: one or both _______ are hypoplastic in ____.

Posterior Communicating Artery. 34%.

7

Circle of Willis variants: The _____________ may be absent or hypoplastic in _____.

Precommunicating segment of ACA (A1). 25%.

8

Circle of Willis variants: bilateral hypoplastic ___ segments in ___.

P1. 11%.

9

________ drain into dural venous sinuses which eventually empty into the _____.

Cerebral veins. IJV.

10

Dural venous sinuses

Superio sagittal sinus, Inferior sagittal sinus, Transverse sinus, Sigmoid sinus, Cavernous sinus & Straight sinus "SITS CS"

11

Major cerebral veins

Basal vein of Rosenthal, Internal cerebral vein & Great cerebral vein of Galen "BIG"

12

In 1981, Lumbar puncture was introduced by

Quincke

13

In 1912, he made the first correlations between disease processes and the cellular and chemical changes in the CSF.

Mestrezat

14

In 1937, they published their classic monograph on the CSF changes in all types of disease.

Merritt & Fremont-Smith

15

In 1950s, this technique were introduced

Membrane filtration

16

Their studies provide the basis of our knowledge of CSF formation, circulation and absorption. Pappenheimer, Ames, Fishman & Davson.

Dandy & Weed

17

Total CSF volume in the adult is

150mL

18

Total CSF volume in the subarachnoid space is

30mL

19

About how many volume of CSF fluid is produce per day

500 mL

20

Helps to preserve a stable chemical environment for neurons and their myelinated fibers. Act as a mechanical support and it removes the wast products of cerebral metabolism.

CSF

21

CSF provides ______ for the brain and SC. Provides ______ to the brain.

Water jacket. Buoyancy.

22

Waste products removed by CSF

CO2, Lactase & Hydrogen ion

23

Average rate of CSF formation is

21-22mL/h (0.35mL/min)

24

The CSF is therefore renewed _______ daily.

4x or 5x

25

Main sites of CSF formation

Choroid plexuses

26

Choroid plexuses are located in the

Floor of lateral, third and fourth ventricles

27

In CSF formation, The thin walled vessels of the plexuses allow _______ of substances from the blood plasma into the extracellular space surrounding choroid cells.

Passive diffusion

28

In CSF formation, Electrolytes equilibrate with the CSF at all points in the _______ and _________. The same is true of ______. The transport of sodium is accomplished by the action of a _________ exchange pump at the apical surface of the choroid plexus cells.

Ventricular & Subarachnoid spaces. Glucose. Sodium potassium ion exchange.

29

In CSF formation, it is also known that the penetration of certain drugs and metabolites is in direct relation to their ________. Ionized compound such as _______ & ___, being relatively insoluble in lipids, enter the CSF slowly unless facilitated by a membrane transport system.

Lipid solubility. Hexoses & AAs.