Module Exam 6: Diencephalon, Olfaction & Hearing Flashcards Preview

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Subdivisions of the Diencephalon

Subthalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus & Thalamus "SHET"

1

Is the region of the embryogenic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior portion of the pituitary gland and pineal gland.

Diencephalon

2

Smallest and oldest part of the diencephalon. Linked to the limbic system. Autonomic, endocrine, reproductive (mating behavior) and circadian rhythm.

Epithalamus

3

Composition of Epithalamus

Pineal body, Habenula & Posterior commissure "PHP"

4

A pair of small nuclei located above the thalamus at its posterior end. It denoted the stalk of the pineal gland, as it sits just in front of the pineal body.

Habenula

5

Extending anteriorly from the habenula which is visible at the dorsal surface of the thalamus. It is divided into medial and lateral habenula, connected to different brain areas and have different functions.

Stria medullaris

6

Medial habenula originates from the

Septum

7

Lateral habenula from

Globus pallidus & Lateral hypothalamus "GL"

8

Projects mainly to the interpeduncular nucleus

Medial Habenula

9

Project to the ventral tegmental area and substancia nigra pars compacta. Inhibitory to ________ neurons.

Lateral Habenula. Dopaminergic.

10

Controls the circadian rhythm in mammals.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

11

Involved in the expression of circadian rhythm. Inhibitory control motor behavior- mediated through the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Related to pain, stress and anxiety.

Habenula

12

Are tonically activated or supressed by retinal illumination. Associated with negative emotions. It is excited nociceptive stimulus.

Lateral Habenula

13

Disrupt female sexual behavior and maternal behavior.

Habenular lesion

14

Synchronize or reset or Circadian rhythm. It is a small midline mass of glandular tissue that secretes the hormone ________.

Pineal gland. Melatonin.

15

Plays a central role in control of diurnal rhythms.

Melatonin

16

In humans, a portion of the control of diurnal rhythms has been taken over by the ________, but there is increase evidence that the pineal gland and melatonin plays a limited role.

Hypothalamus

17

Can induce a precocious puberty in males, it has been suggested that the pineal is also involve in timing the onset of puberty.

Tumor of the pineal

18

Is calcified and cam serve as a marker for the midline of the brain.

Pineal

19

Ventral to the thalamus and lateral to the hypothalamus. Plays a role in the degeneration of rhythmic movements.

Subthalamus

20

Provides the most effective treatment for late stage Parkinson's disease

Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)

21

A large relay station. Main type of info that gets relayed here is sensory info. Motor is likewise relayed. All sensory info going to the brain (except for _______) has to make a pit stop in here in order to be relayed appropriately.

Hypothalamus. Olfactory.

22

Runs longitudinally and separates the thalamus into medial and lateral nuclear masses.

Internal medullary lamina

23

5 Nuclear groups of Hypothalamus

Ventral, Lateral, Anterior, Intralaminar & Medial

24

Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Medial

Mediodorsal nucleus

25

Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Lateral

Lateral dorsal, Lateral posterior & Pulvinar "LLP"

26

Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Ventral

Ventro anterior/Ventral lateral, Ventral posterior, Medial geniculate body & Lateral geniculate body "VVML"

27

Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Anterior

Anterior nucleus

28

Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Intralaminar

Centromedian

29

Anterior nuclear group receives input from ___________. Its cortical connections is at the __________.

Limbic system (including mammillary bodies) Cingulate gyrus