Flashcards in Module Exam 6: Diencephalon, Olfaction & Hearing Deck (173)
Subdivisions of the Diencephalon
Subthalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus & Thalamus "SHET"
Is the region of the embryogenic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior portion of the pituitary gland and pineal gland.
Smallest and oldest part of the diencephalon. Linked to the limbic system. Autonomic, endocrine, reproductive (mating behavior) and circadian rhythm.
Composition of Epithalamus
Pineal body, Habenula & Posterior commissure "PHP"
A pair of small nuclei located above the thalamus at its posterior end. It denoted the stalk of the pineal gland, as it sits just in front of the pineal body.
Extending anteriorly from the habenula which is visible at the dorsal surface of the thalamus. It is divided into medial and lateral habenula, connected to different brain areas and have different functions.
Medial habenula originates from the
Lateral habenula from
Globus pallidus & Lateral hypothalamus "GL"
Projects mainly to the interpeduncular nucleus
Project to the ventral tegmental area and substancia nigra pars compacta. Inhibitory to ________ neurons.
Lateral Habenula. Dopaminergic.
Controls the circadian rhythm in mammals.
Involved in the expression of circadian rhythm. Inhibitory control motor behavior- mediated through the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Related to pain, stress and anxiety.
Are tonically activated or supressed by retinal illumination. Associated with negative emotions. It is excited nociceptive stimulus.
Disrupt female sexual behavior and maternal behavior.
Synchronize or reset or Circadian rhythm. It is a small midline mass of glandular tissue that secretes the hormone ________.
Pineal gland. Melatonin.
Plays a central role in control of diurnal rhythms.
In humans, a portion of the control of diurnal rhythms has been taken over by the ________, but there is increase evidence that the pineal gland and melatonin plays a limited role.
Can induce a precocious puberty in males, it has been suggested that the pineal is also involve in timing the onset of puberty.
Tumor of the pineal
Is calcified and cam serve as a marker for the midline of the brain.
Ventral to the thalamus and lateral to the hypothalamus. Plays a role in the degeneration of rhythmic movements.
Provides the most effective treatment for late stage Parkinson's disease
Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)
A large relay station. Main type of info that gets relayed here is sensory info. Motor is likewise relayed. All sensory info going to the brain (except for _______) has to make a pit stop in here in order to be relayed appropriately.
Runs longitudinally and separates the thalamus into medial and lateral nuclear masses.
Internal medullary lamina
5 Nuclear groups of Hypothalamus
Ventral, Lateral, Anterior, Intralaminar & Medial
Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Medial
Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Lateral
Lateral dorsal, Lateral posterior & Pulvinar "LLP"
Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Ventral
Ventro anterior/Ventral lateral, Ventral posterior, Medial geniculate body & Lateral geniculate body "VVML"
Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Anterior
Nuclear Groups & Nuclei: Intralaminar