Flashcards in Molecular Biochemistry Deck (39):
snRNP function in? Name some antibodies?
i.e. Anti-smith, anti-U1 RNP
Anti-smith antibodies is highly specific for?
Splicesomes function to splice?
Three Stop Codons?
UAG, UGA, UAA
DNA polymerase III vs polymerase I
Polymerase III- Elongates leading and lagging strand
Polymerase I-Degrades RNA primer
Fluoroquinolones inhibit? What do these class of enzymes do?
Topoisomerase II and IV
Add or Remove supercoils
Telomerase activity is increased in?
Frameshift vs nonsense vs missense vs silent. Rank from worst to best
Frameshift, non sense, missense, silent
Worst to Best
UGA has a mutation for UAG, what is this mutation called?
Silent=> both produce termination sequences
Sickle cell disease (substitution of glutamic acid with valine) is a example of?
Nonsense mutations result in early? Why?
Because the C terminal would be completely removed
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an example of what kind of mutation?
Frameshift mutations produce?
Truncated, nonfunctional protein
For a lac operon, a repressor protein exists when there is?
How does low glucose increase CAP activity?
low glucose=>increased cAMP=>CAP=>transcription
How does Nucleotide excision repair work?
endonuclease=>DNA polymerase =>ligase
When does Nucleotide excision repair work? When does Base Excision Repair work?
Repairs ONE nucleotide at a time
"spontaneous deamination can happen at any time"
How does Base Excision excision repair work?
Spontaneous Deamination (C=>U) => Uracil Glycolyase=>AP endonuclease=>Lyase=>DNA polymerase =>ligase
Xeroderma pigmentosum is representative of what disease? is due to? Results in?
Nucleotide excision repair defect
Cause: UV Result: thymine dimers
Mismatch Repair defect leads to?
MisMatch Repair defect occurs in? How does it work? In what disease do you see it?
Occurs in: G2 (MisMatch has two M's)
Finds: GATC sequence that has not been methylated (It will usually distort the DNA)
Cuts: Enzyme cuts that sequence
Brings together 2 ends of DNA fragments to repair double-stranded breaks? Give 2 examples of them?
Nonhomologous end joining (dsDNA repair)
Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia
BRCA genes are what kind of genes?
DNA repair genes
Drugs blocking DNA replication and creating Chain termination have modified? Give an example?
Promotor mutation leads to? Is the promoter ever transcribed?
Dramatic decrease in level of gene transcription
rRNA stands for? mRNA stands for? tRNA stands for? Who makes these RNAs
RNA polymerase I-rRNA=rampant=numerous
RNA polymerase II-mRNA=massive
RNA polymerase III-tRNA=tiny
α-amanitin inhibits? How does it do this?
RNA polymerase II
How: interferes with translocation of RNA & DNA needed to empty the site for the next round of RNA synthesis
Rifampin inhibits? How does it do this?
RNA polymerase in prokaryotes
How: blocking the formation (Ri-Form-pin) of the phosphodiester bond in the RNA backbone=>truncated RNA
ß-thalassemia is a result of what abnormal process?
In Protein Synthesis, ATP is used for? GTP is used for?
Going places (Translocation)
Zyomyogen=>mature protein; this process is called?
Heat Shock Proteins are called?
What activity is increased in cancer cells and decreased in progeria?
Transition vs Transversion?
Transition: purine to purine
Transversion: purine to pyrimidine (conVERTing to something different)
Prokaryote's mRNA start codon? What is its significance?
fMet induces neutrophil chemotaxis
What clinical findings do you get from alpha amanitin? What is the mechanism? Treatment?
Stops DNA/RNA translocation=>decreases RNA synthesis=>destruction of liver cells
Tx: Silymarin: prevents toxins from entering and allows for regeneration of liver
Actinomycin D or Called Dactinomycin inhibits? Difference between Actinomycin and Rifampin? How does it do this?
Actinomycin or Dactinomycin (2 words) blocks polymerase in both (2) prokaryotes and eukaryotes while Rifampin only blocks prokaryotes
How: binding DNA at the transcription initiation complex=> prevents elongation of RNA
What is the purpose of Capping and Tailing?
Capping: orients mRNA on ribosome
Tailing: gives it a longer half-life