Flashcards in Molecular Cell Biology Deck (14):
What is the basis of metabolism?
oxygen + fuel → CO2 + H20 + energy
How is energy obtained from fuel?
Oxidising it to CO2 and H20
Unused fuel can be stored as triacylglycerol (triglyceride - fat) or glycogen (carbohydrates or CHO)
What regulates fuel storage and retrieval?
Two endocrine hormones → insulin and glucagon
What is RMR?
Resting metabolic rate - the measure of energy required to maintain life
How does blood glucose vary over time?
Depends on food eaten
But, approximately 2 hours after meal = spike, 2 hours later = drop
What is BMI?
Body mass index - rough measure to determine ideal body weight
BMI = weight (kg) / height (m^2)
underweight < 18.5
severely obese 35-39.9
morbidly obese > or equal to 40
What is catabolism?
the process of oxidation of fuels to produce CO2 and H2O - produces energy that is released by the transfer of electrons to O2 - this energy generates heat and ATP
- CO2 expired
- H2O excreted (sometimes it is used/sometimes made)
- heat maintains body temperature
- electrons transferred to electron transport chain
- ATP produced
What is ATP essential for?
Active transport of molecules
Phosphorylation and cell signalling
Beating of cilia and flagella
What process are involved in the ATP-ADP cycle?
Energy production: ADP+Pi→ATP
carbohydrate, lipid, protein
Energy utilisation: ATP→ADP+Pi
biosynthesis (anabolism), muscle contraction, detoxification, active ion transport, thermogenesis
How much energy is produced by oxidation of carbs, proteins, lipids and alcohol?
Carb: CO2 + H2O → 4kcal/g
Protein: CO2 + H2O + NH4+ → 4kcal/g
Alcohol: CO2 + H20 → 7kcal/g
What is GSD type 1A?
Baby cannot regenerate own glucose → build up of glycogen in body cells → accumulation in tissues and organs, especially liver, kidney & small intestine
Signs and symptoms typically show at 3/4 months
Hypoglycaemia can → seizures
Where can aerobic glycolysis occur?
In tissues with mitochondria in the presence of O2
Cannot occur in red blood cells → pyruvate produced needs to enter mitochondria to complete aerobic respiration (rbc's don't have any)
How much ATP is released in aerobic glycolysis
36 moles ATP per mole of glucose