atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

relative atomic mass (symbol Ar)

the average mass of the naturally occuring isotopes of the element relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12, which is given a mass of exactly 12

it is found by comparing the mass of an atom with the mass of an atom of carbon-12

relative molecular mass, Mr (RMM)/Relative Formula Mass (RFM)

(the sum of the individual relative atomic masses of the atoms that make up a molecule/compound)

is the mass of a molecule of the compound relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12, which is given a mss of exactly 12

isotopes

atoms of the same element which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutorns

relative isotopic mass

an isoptope of an element is the mass of one atom of that isotope relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12

mole

the amount of substance that has the same number of particles (atoms, molecules, ions etc) as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12

mole = in refernece to a sentence

mol = unit

molar mass (gmol^{-1})

the mass of one mole of a compound, expressed in grams. Thus one mole of carbon-12 has a mass of exactly 12g. One moleof sodium-23 has a mass of 23g and so on

Avogadro's number

the number of particles in a mole i.e. 6.023 x 10^{23} = 1 mole

what does the atomic number also equal?

number of protons

number of electrons

what is magnesium's atomic mass in comparison to carbon

C : Mg

12 : 24

1 : 2

you divide by the smallest number or smallest factor of the two numbers

what is the relative molecular mass (RMM) of CO_{2}?

C = 12

0= 16

12 + (16 x 2)

=44

what is the relative molecular mass (RMM) of Ca (OH)_{2}

Ca = 40

O = 16

H = 1

Ca + (O x 2) + (H x 2)

=74

what is the relative molecular mass (RMM) of CuSO_{4 }• 5 H_{2}O

Cu = 63.5

S = 32

O = 16

H = 1

63.5 + 32 + (16x4) • (1 x 2 x 5) + (16 x 5)

159 • 90

(the • means for every CuSO4 there are five H2O)

=249.5

How do you find the % mass?

% mass = RMM of element ÷ RMM of compound x 100%

Find the percentage of oxygen in Ca (OH)_{2}

O = 16

Ca = 40

H = 1

(2 x 16) ÷ 74 = 32 ÷ 74 x 100%

=43.2%

Calulate the relative molecular mass (Mr) of NH_{4}NO_{3}

N = 14

H = 1

O = 16

14 + (1 x 4) +14 + (16 x 3)

= 80

Calculate the relative molecular mass (Mr) of Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}

Al = 27

S = 32

O = 16

(27 x 2) + (32 x 3) + (16 x 4 x 3)

= 342

Calculate the relative molecular mass of H_{2}C_{2}O_{4} • 2H_{2}O

H = 1

C = 12

O = 16

(1 x 2) + (12 x 2) + (16 x 4) • (2 x 1 x 2) + (2 x 16)

90 • 36

= 126

Calculate the percentage by mass of C in CH_{4}

12 ÷ 16 x 100

= 75%

Calculate the percentage by mass of O in Ca(NO_{3})_{2}

(16 x 3 x 2) ÷ 164 x 100

= 58.5 %

Calculate the percentage by mass of O in Fe(NO_{3})_{3}

(16 x 3 x 3) ÷ 56 + (14 x 3) + (16 x 3 x 3) = 242

133 ÷ 242 x 100%

=59.5%

How many molecules are in one mole of CO_{2}?

6.02 x 10^{23} molecules

How many atoms are in one mole of CO_{2}?

because there are 3 atoms in 1 molecule of CO_{2}?

3 x 6.02 x 10^{23}

= 18.06 x 10^{23} atoms

How many molecules are in 1/2 mole of CH_{4}?

1/2 x 6.02 x 10^{23} molecules / 3.01 x 10^{23} molecules

How many atoms are in 1.5 moles of CH_{4}?

there are 5 atoms in the molecule

5 x 1.5 x (6.02 x 10^{23})

7.5 x 6.02 x 10^{23}

=45.15 x 10^{23} atoms

What is the formula that connects moles, mass and Mr?

number of moles = mass (g) ÷ Mr

n = m ÷ Mr

this is in a solid

Caluculate the number of moles in 0.26g of Ca0

m = 0.26

Mr = 40 +16 = 56

n = 0.26 ÷ 56

= 0.0046 mol

How many molecules are present in this number of 0.0046 moles?

1 mol= 6.02 x 10^{23}

0.0046 mol = 6.02 x 10^{23} x 0.0046

= 0.0277 x 10^{23 }molecules

Find the mass of 3.2 moles of SO_{2}

mass = moles x Mr

3.2 x (32+(16x2))

=3.2 x 64

= 204.8

what happens when the proton number changes?

the identity of the atom changes

calculate the relative atomic mass of the isotope chlorine where:

25% ^{37}Cl

75% ^{35}Cl

25 ÷ 100 x 37 = 9.25

75 ÷ 100 x 35 = 26.25

9.25 + 26.25 = 35.5

= 35.5 (R.A.M.)

how can you check that your R.A.M. is correct?

you can check it on the periodic table

Calculate the R.A.M. of boron when:

% of abundance = 19.7 for the the relative isotopic mass of 10

% of abundance = 80.3 for the relative isotopic mass of 11

(10 x 9.7) + (11 x 80.3) ÷ 100 = 10.8 (1 d.p)

Calculate the relative atomic mass of Sulphur when:

^{32}S = 95.0%

^{33}S = 0.76%

^{34}S = 4.22%

^{35}S = 0.020%

(32 x 95.0) + (33 x 0.76) + (34 x 4.22) + (35 x 0.020) ÷ 100

=32.0926

how many moles are in 1.8g of H_{2}O?

moles = mass ÷ Mr

mols = 1.8g ÷ 18

=0.1 mol

how many moles are in 80g of NaOH

moles = mass ÷ Mr

moles = 80 ÷ (26+16+1)

=80 ÷ 40

=2 mol

how many moles are in 19.6g of H_{2}SO_{4}?

moles = mass ÷ Mr

moles = 19.6 ÷ (1x2) + 32 + (16x4)

= 0.2 mol

how many moles are in 585g of NaCl

moles = mass ÷ Mr

moles = 585 ÷ 23 +35.5

= 585 ÷ 58.5

= 10 mol

how much does 0.5 mol C_{2}H_{5}OH weigh?

mass = moles x Mr

= 0.5 x (24 + 5 + 16 + 1)

= 23g

how much does 2.5 mol NaNO_{3} weigh?

mass = moles x Mr

= 2.5 x (23 + 14 + 16 x 4)

= 212.5 g

how much does 3 mol of K_{2}SO_{4} weigh?

mass = moles x Mr

= 3 x (39 x 2 + 32 x 16 x 4)

= 522

how much does 0.25 mol of NaOH weigh?

mass = moles x Mr

= 0.25 x (23 +16 + 1)

= 10 g

calculate the percentage composition of of Cl in AlCl_{3}?

106.5 ÷ 27 + (35.5 x 3) x 100%

= 79.8 %

calculate the percentage compostion of H in H_{3}PO_{4}?

3 ÷ 3 = 31 + (16 x 4) x 100% = 3.1%

how many atoms are there in 0.25 moles of sodium?

0.25 x 1 (there is one atom of sodium) x 6.023 x 10^{23}

= 1.505 x 10^{23}

how many molecules are there in 1.5 of CO_{2}?

1.5 x 1 (there is one molecule) x 6.023 x 10^{23}

= 9.023 x 10^{23}

how many atoms are there in 1.5 moles of CO_{2}?

1.5 x 3 (there are 3 atoms in the molecule) x 6.023 x 10^{23}

= 27.09x 10^{23}

what is the total number of atoms in 1 mole of H_{2}SO_{4}?

7 (there are 7 atoms in the molecule) x 6.023 x 10^{23}

= 42.14 x 10^{23}

what is the total number of molecules of 0.47 moles of SO_{3}?

0.47 x 1 (there is only one molecule) x 6.023 x 10^{23}

= 2.83 x 10^{23}

what is the molecular formula?

the number of atoms of each different element in he molecule

e.g.

H H H H

| | | |

H - C -C - C - C - H

| | | |

H H H H

= C_{4}H_{10}

what is the empirical formula?

the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each elemnt present in the molecule

e.g. m.f = C_{4}H_{10}

e.f = C_{2}H_{5 }

the e.f. doesn't have fractions

what is special about carbon dioxide (C0_{2})'s molecular formula and empirical formula?

they are the same

what is special about water (H_{2}O)'s molecular and empirical formula?

they are the same

how do you work out the molecular formula?

Mr ÷ empirical formula

If the empirical formula is CH_{2} and the Mr is 42, what is the molecular formula?

molecular formula = Mr ÷ empirical formula

= 42 ÷ 14

= 3

C_{3}H_{6}

If the molecular formula is C_{5}H_{10}, what is the empirical formula and Mr?

Mr = (12 x 5) + (1 x 10) = 70

empirical formula = CH_{2} (cancel down)

if the molecular formula is C_{4}H_{8}, what is the Mr and empirical formula?

Mr = (12 x 4) + (1 x 8) = 56

empirical formula = CH_{2} (cancel down)

If the empirical formula is C_{3}H_{8 }and the Mr is 44, what is the molecular formula?

molecular formula = Mr ÷ empirical formula

= 44 ÷ 44

= 1

C_{3}H_{8}

if the empirical formula is CH_{2}O and the Mr is 180, what is the molecular formula?

molecular formula = Mr ÷ empirical formula

= 180 ÷ 30

= 6

C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}

what happens when salts crystallise from solution

they often form hydrated salts containing loosely bonded water molecules

water of cyrtallisation

what is used in the test for water?

anhydrous (no water) copper sulphate

CuSO_{4}(s) + 5H_{2}O --> CuSO_{4}(s) • 5H_{2}O

white powder of anyhdrous copper dulphate --> blue crystals of hydrated copper suplhate

the water in the blue crystals is called the water of crystallisation

what does gentle heating do to water in crystallisation?

heating will drive the water molecules from the crystal lattice

water of crystallisation is lost and the anyhdrous salt

will form again

what is the formula of hydrated magnesium sulphate crytsals that contain MgSO_{4} (48.8%) and H_{2}O (51.2%)

When 4.76g of hydrated cobalt chloride crystals were heated they gave 2.6g of anyhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl_{2}). What is the formula of the hydrated salt? (Co = 59 Cl = 35.5 ; H = 1 ; O = 16)

What three steps do you go through to calculate the reacting mass?

1. look at the chemical equation and circle the two substances that are discussed in the question. Using the information given, work out the moles of the reactant

2. compare the molar ratio; Reactant:Product (or substance required) - is it 1:1? 2:1? 3:2? etc... then determine the moles

3. now that you have the moles of the product (or substance requires), again, using the moles equation, work out what is asked for in the question i.e. mass(g), concentration (moldm^{-3}), volume (cm^{3}) etc...

once you know the mass of the reactant, you can work out the moles of everything

what does 1 mol O_{2} molecules equate to?

2 mol O atoms

what is yield?

amount of product

what is percentage yield?

the efficiency of a reaction can be assesed by finding the percentage yield

i.e. how much product did we actually make? was it as much as we predicted?

what is the percentage yield equation?

how much product we actually made ÷ how much product we should have obtained (theoretical number) x 100%

what are the units used in percentage yield?

it doesn't matter, the % yield will be the same regardless

e.g. grams, kg, moles etc...

what is the equation for atom economy?

Mr of 'desired' product ÷ sum of Mr of all products x 100%

what is the difference between atom economy and percentage yield?

the % yield is how efficient the reactant is (yield = amount of product)

atom economy is how much of the yield is actually useful

why is the % yield never at 100%?

reactions always have yields lower than 100% for the following reasons:

loss of product in transfer and separation

formation of by-products

decomposition of starting materials

incomplete reaction and reversibility

what range of% yields might be economically viable?

industrial chemists need their reaction yields to be as high as possible

generally, they want reations with a % yield above 75% so that they do not waste too much starting material

there are exceptions where lower products are acceptable

e.g. if the product is particularly valuable, starting material is very cheap, unused reactants can be re-used or recycles

why is atom economy important?

atom economy determines the efficiency of a reaction, how many atoms of starting material are usefully converted into product

it is an important measure of the enviromenta friendliness of a reaction

the more efficient/ higher atom economy the less wasteful and therefore more green

in less efficient/lower atom economy reactions most atoms are converted to useless by-products

A hydrocarbon contains 62% C and the rest hydrogen. Find the empirical formula

Calculate the empirical formula for iron bromide containing 3.78g of iron and the overall ass being 20g

A hydrocarbon contains 68% C and 12% H and the rest is made of oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula

A group were given 10g of hydrated copper sulphate to heat. After heating, 6.4g of anhydrous coper sulphate remained. How many water molecules are there in hydrated copper sulphate?

1.5 H_{2}O

moles of H_{2}O is 164.1

Dibutyl succinate is a domestic insect repellent. Its composition is 62.58% C, 9.63% H, 27.79 O. Its relative mass is 230. What are the empirical and molecular formulae of dibutyl succinate.

What mass of potassium oxide is fromed when 9.75g of potassium is burned in oxygen?

4K + O_{2} ---> 2K_{2}O

What mass of sodium is needed to reduce 1kg of titanium chloride?

Ti Cl_{4 }+ 4Na ---> Ti + 4NaCl

What mass of silver chloride is formed when 83.25g of CaCl_{2} is reacted with AgNO_{3 }solution?

bromeothane can be prepared by reacting hydrogen bromide with ethanol according to the followng equation:

HBr + C_{2}H_{5}OH ---> C_{2}H_{5}Br +H_{2}O

( C_{2}H_{5}OH is ethanol)

mass of ethanol is 9.20

work out the percentage yield

when James reacted 5.6g of ethane with bromine water he obtained 16.9g of C_{2}H_{4}Br_{2. }Calculate his % yield

C_{2}H_{4} + Br_{2} ---> C_{2}H_{4}Br_{2}

If the percentage yield fora reaction is 100%, 60g of reactant A would make 80g of product C. How much reactant A is needed to make 80g of product C if the percentage yield of the reaction is only 75%?

Calculate the atom economy of CaCO_{3} ---> CaO + CO_{2}

What is a good example to use to explain the difference between % yield and atom economy?

ammonia

i) What mass of copper (II) oxide will be formed if 10g of copper(II) carbonate is decomposed?

CuCO_{3} ---> CO_{2} + CuO

ii) When 10g of copper (II) carbonate produced 4.5g of copper(II) oxide. What is the % yield?

ii) 4.5 ÷ 6.36 = 69.9%

b. 49.6 ÷ 4 x 10 = 124

what is the equation for moles in a gas

n = v ÷ 24000

what is the equation for volume in a gas?

v = n x 24000

how much does one mole of gas occupy a volume of?

one mole of any gas occupies a voulme of 24000cm^{3}

this is only applicable at room temprature which is 25^{0} (298K) and at the atmospheric pressure of 1 atm

what is the Kelvin scale

0^{0} = 273 K

add on the degrees to the kelvin number 273 to find the Kelvin temprature

e.g. 25^{0} = (273+ 25) = 298 K

find the voume of CO_{2} gas produced hen 4.5g of CaCO_{3} is decomposed

CaCO_{3} (s) ---> CaO (s) + CO_{3} (g)

n = v ÷ 24000

v = n x 24000

n = m÷ Mr = 4.5 ÷ (40 + 12 + (16x3)) = 4.5 ÷ 100

v = 0.045 x 24000

= 1080 cm^{3}

a hydrocarbon contains 18g of carbon and 3.5g hydrogen and has an RFM (Mr) of 86

calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon

what should a student do to be certain that the reaction had occured fully and they achieved the maxiumum final mass of anhydrous solution?

gently heating a water of crystalisation soultion will drive the water away from the crystal lattice thus breaikng water of crystallisation and the anyhdrous soultion will form again

heat to +100^{0}C (boil)

wiegh on a mass balance to measure change

which of the following contains the greatest number of hydrogen atoms?

A) 2 moles of water, H_{2}O

B) 1.5 moles of ammonia, NH_{3}

C) 1 moles of hydrogen gas, H_{2}

D) 0.5 moles of methane, CH_{4}

suggest why 100% atom economy is an advantage

no waste or associated disposal costs (hazardous/radioactive waste)

more efficient in terms of money and energy saving

which of the following gas samples occupies the greatest volume at the same temperature and pressure?

Relative atomic masses: H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; F = 19; Ne = 20

A) 1 gram of ethane

B) 1 gram of oxygen

C) 1 gram of flourine

D) 1 gram of neon

ethane, oxygen and flourine are diatomic but neon is monatomic

A = 0.8 dm^{3}

B = 0.75 dm^{3}

C = 0.63 dm^{3}

D = 1.2 dm^{3}

17.1g of aluminium sulphate, Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}, was dissolved in water

calculate the number of sulfate ions, SO_{4}^{2-}, present in the solution formed

(assume the molar mass of Al_{2}(SO4)_{3} is 342g mol^{-1} and the Avogadro Constant is 6 x 10^{23} mol^{-1})

A) 3 x 10^{23}

B) 1 x 10^{23}

C) 3 x 10 ^{22}

D) 9 x 10 ^{22}

D) 9 x 10^{22}

consider the following reaction:

Na_{2}CO_{3} + 2HCl --> 2NaCl + H_{2}O + CO_{2}

11g of sodium carbonate is reacted with 7.3g of hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride, water snd carbon dioxide. Has too much sodium carbonate been used? Explain