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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (286):
1

... are long chain molecules that form lots of small ... called ...

the monomers are unsaturated ... molecules that add together to form polymer molecules

the polymers are named after their momomer that forms, so ... would be names polybutene

the polymers are types of alkanes and are therefore ... . this means they are quite unreactive and so it is difficult for them to decompose or ... in the environment

the persistence of plastics is a problem as it fills up ... sites and can cause problems for wildlife

polymers are long chain molecules that form lots of small alkenes called monomers

the monomers are unsaturated reactive molecules that add together to form polymer molecules

the polymers are named after their momomer that forms, so butene would be names polybutene

the polymers are types of alkanes and are therefore saturated . this means they are quite unreactive and so it is difficult for them to decompose or biodegrade in the environment

the persistence of plastics is a problem as it fills up landfill sites and can cause problems for wildlife

2

a polymer is a chemical ... made of ... (called ...) linked together

a polymer is a chemical compound made of many smaller, identical molecules (called monomers) linked together

3

after butane/ene, alkanes and alkenes take on the names of their ........

5C =

6C =

7C = 

8C = 

 

mathematical shapes

5C = pentene/ane

6C = hexene/ane

7C = heptene/ane

8C = octene/ane

4

are alkanes normally reactive or unreactive?

very unreactive

5

are haloalkanes useful products?

yes

6

are hyrdocarbons found in crude oil?

yes

7

are isomers free to rotate?

yes

if it stays on the same carbon then it is the same

8

are substances with high boiling points (C20 -->) viscous or not? (in terms of crude oil)

viscous

9

the viscosity ... as the boilingpoint gets higher

the viscoity increases as the boiling point gets higher

10

as fractions decrease in density and boiling point in fraction distillation, what becomes of them?

less carbon atoms

more commercially useful

11

as fractions increase in density and boiling point in fraction distillation, what becomes of them?

more carbon atoms

less commercially useful

12

As the relative molecular mass of an alkane increases which one of the following is true?

A. the boiling point and viscosity increases

B. The boiling point and the volatility increases

C. The boiling point decreases and the viscosity increases

D. The boiling point and the viscosity decreases

A

13

at what percentage of alcohol is yeast poisoned?

14%

14

Biodiesel is a fuel made by the chemical reaction of alcohol with vegetable oils such as soya bean oil. This process also produces glycerine which used in soap making. Biodiesel can be used in engines which normally would run on petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum diesel in any proportions. Biodiesel is biodegradable and contains very little sufur. The complete combustion of smoke-type emissions that petroleum diesel. Some of the diadvanatges of biodiesel include attacking the engine hoses that were intended for a different fuel and loosening deposits wihin the engine left from previous fuels which can cause blockages.

From the given information, it is possible to conclude that biodiesel will contribute to...

A. a decrease in acid rain formtaion

B. An increase in fog formation

C. A decrease in soap production

D. A reduction in global warming

A

15

Biodiesel is a fuel made by the chemical reaction of alcohol with vegetable oils such as soya bean oil. This process also produces glycerine which used in soap making. Biodiesel can be used in engines which normally would run on petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum diesel in any proportions. Biodiesel is biodegradable and contains very little sufur. The complete combustion of smoke-type emissions that petroleum diesel. Some of the diadvanatges of biodiesel include attacking the engine hoses that were intended for a different fuel and loosening deposits wihin the engine left from previous fuels which can cause blockages.

The main advantage of using biodiesel instead of petroleum diesel is that...

A. It does not cause damage to engines

B. It guaranteed the soap industry a plentiful supply of glycerine

C. It increases the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere

D. It is a renewable fuel

D

16

Biodiesel is a fuel made by the chemical reaction of alcohol with vegetable oils such as soya bean oil. This process also produces glycerine which used in soap making. Biodiesel can be used in engines which normally would run on petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum diesel in any proportions. Biodiesel is biodegradable and contains very little sufur. The complete combustion of smoke-type emissions that petroleum diesel. Some of the diadvanatges of biodiesel include attacking the engine hoses that were intended for a different fuel and loosening deposits wihin the engine left from previous fuels which can cause blockages.

Which one of the following statements about biodiesel compared with petroleum diesel is not based on scientific measursments?

A. Both fuel and its combustion products are less carcinogenic than ordinary diesel

B. For transportation, biodiesel is classes as less flamable than petroleum diesel

C. The exhaust gases from a biodiesel-fuelled engine less unburnt hydrocarbons

D. Biodiesel has a much more pleasant odour than petroleum diesel

D

17

butance can form two structural isomers

draw their displayed formula

which structural isomer has a higher boiling point and why?

number 1 as it has higher intermolecular force of attraction as the chain is a straight line - harder to break

18

By what industrial process is crude oil seperated into fractions?

A. Cracking

B. Polymerisation

C. Fractional Distillation

D. Porolysis

C

19

by what process are the hydrocarbons in crude oil seperated?

fractional distillation

20

carboxylic acid are easily made through ...

oxidising alcohol

21

complete this diagram for the cracking of paraffin

22

Crude oil consists of a large number of different compounds. Explain how fractional distillation is used to produce useful compounds from crude oil. (3 marks)

 

Crude oil evaporated in a fractioning tower

Different hydrocarbons in the crude oil have different boiling points

Their vapour condenses at different temperatures in the tower, and are collected as either purer liquids of gases

Each fractions consist of hydrocarbons with a different number of carbon atoms and each of these has different uses

23

decane and octane are straight chain carbons

why are they not used in this form as fuels in the car engine?

because of their straight chain carbons they don't burn steadily or smoothly

the straight chain compounds ignite prematurely, causing 'knocking', which can damage the engine

the efficiency is low

24

describe how crude oil was formed

formed millions of years from remains of dead organisms (dead sea creatures)

millions of yeras ago huge numbers of microscopic animals and plants, plankton, died and fell to the bottom of the sea - remains covered in mud

as the mud sediment was buried by more desiment it started to change into rock as the temperature and pressure increased - the plants and animals were 'cooked' by this process and slowly changed into crude oil

crude oil is less dense than the water in rocks so it will rise as a result of pressure from below and often escape altogether if the rocks are permeable

(if the rocks are impermeable, oil can't rise through and gets trapped)

25

what two things to different fractions have?

different number of carbon atoms

different boiling points

26

different fractions have a ..... number of carbon atoms and ...... boiling points

when the carbon chains gets ....... (more carbon atoms) the boiling points get ...... as there are more chains to ......

different fractions have a different number of carbon atoms and different boiling points

when the carbon chains gets longer (more carbon atoms) the boiling points get higher as there are more chains to break

27

do alkanes or alkenes undergo photolysis?

alkanes

28

draw a displayed formula for 2-methyl-propane

29

draw a displayed formula for butan-2-ol

30

draw the displayed formula for C3H7OH (only those isomers with an -OH group)

31

draw the displayed formula for:

2-chlorobutane

32

draw the displayed formula for:

2-methylpropan-2-ol

33

draw the displayed formula for:

propan-1-ol

34

draw the displayed formula of the isomers of C5H12

 

35

draw the displayed fromula for the this monomer and draw its resulting polymer:

propene

36

draw the displayed fromula for the this monomer and draw its resulting polymer:

chloroethene

37

draw the displayed fromula for the this monomer and draw its resulting polymer:

tetrafluroethene

38

draw the displayed fromula for the this monomer and draw its resulting polymer:

ethene

39

draw the displayed formula for but-2-ene

40

draw the displayed formula for propan-2-ol

41

draw the displayed formula for propan-1-ol

42

draw the displayed formula for but-1-ene

43

draw the isomers of hexane C6H14

44

draw the the displayed formula for as many isomers as you can for C2H4Cl2

45

how is ethanol dehydrated to produce ethene?

ethanol vapour is passed over hot aluminium oxide acting as a catalyst

46

explain why the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is believed to by some scientists to be responsible for global warming

include one effect of global warming in your answer

carbon dioxide and water vapour are one of the main greenhouse gases

it rises into the atmosphere but traps all the air so it is re-emmited back out again

one effect of global warming is the melting of ice caps which causes flooding

47

fill in the blanks for the conclusion of the cracking of paraffin:
 

the large ....... molecules are ...... down into smaller molecules

this reaction is called .......

to do this we need a ..... temperature (....oC - ....oC) and a ..... (aluminium oxide)

the ...... molecules are more useful than the ..... molecules

the large paraffin molecules are brokendown into smaller molecules

this reaction is called cracking

to do this we need a high temperature (400oC - 500oC) and a catalyst (aluminium oxide)

the small molecules are more useful than the large molecules

48

fill in the blanks for the result of the cracking of paraffin:

the gas collected is called ......

the gas turns orange bromine water ......

the gas collected is called ethene

the gas turns orange bromine water colourless

49

Four fractions obtained by crude oil are:

bitumen

diesel

gasoline

kerosene

which of these is used in making roads?

bitumen

50

Four fractions obtained by crude oil are:

bitumen

diesel

gasoline

kerosene

which of these is most viscous?

bitumen

51

Four fractions obtained by crude oil are:

bitumen

diesel

gasoline

kerosene

name two other fractions

residue

lubricating oil

52

Four fractions obtained by crude oil are:

bitumen

diesel

gasoline

kerosene

which of these is the most volatile?

gasoline

53

fractions of crude oil become .... useful as they don't burn as easily

less

54

give a peice of evidence that shows that each fraction in fractional distillation is a mixture of compounds and not a pure compound

for each fraction that comes off there is not an exact boiling point - there is a round

55

give a simplified version of the process the crude oil that is drilled for by oil rigs goes through?

extracted and goes through distillation

distillation — heated up, parts separate from liquid at different boiling temperatures

lower boiling points separate first

56

what is the catalyst used in making ethanol from ethene?

phosphoric acid

57

hot crude oil is fed in at the base of a tall column which is kept hotter at the top than at the bottom

what happens to the lighter hydrocarbons?

lighter hydrocarbons have lower boiling points so they vaporise and rise up the tower where they cool and eventually recondense

58

how are fractions obtained in fractional distillation?

different fractions have different boiling points

the smallest, lightest chain fracions have the lowest boiling points and come of first at the top of the column

gases are at the top

liquids are in the middle

solids are at the bottom

59

how can you identify an alkene?

it has a double bond

60

how do you get alkenes?

you can only get them from cracking not from crude oil

61

How does the number of carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon affect its boiling point? (1 mark)

 

The more carbon atoms a hydrocarbon has, the higher its boiling point (the few carbon atoms a hydrocarbon has, the lower its boiling point)

62

how is ethanol produced by fermentation?

yeat is added to a sugar or starch solution and left for several days in the warm (30-400C) with the absence of air (anaerobic conditions)

enzymes (catalyst) in the yeast convert the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide

63

how many carbon atoms are present in propanoic acid?

3

64

how much ethene reacts in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

only a small proportion

65

how to you know the order of the name of the isomer?

1. identify the largest carbon chain

2. number from heaviest side first - a double bond is heaviest (so put it on lowest carbon possible), read left to right or right to left to which carbon 

3. identify groups attached - e.g. 1C = methyl

4. identify type of molecule

5. prefix (group) - suffix (type) 

66

if bromine water was added to a sample of ethane what would you see?

no observation

67

in a formula, where is yeast written?

above the arrow

68

in a fractional distillation coloumn, where is it hottest and where is it coolest?

it is hottest near the bottom

it is coolest near the top

69

in addition polymerisation, ... add to themselves

as this addition proceeds further a ... is formed

the alkene is a ... in the chain (the monomer) - the chain itself is the polymer

in addition polymerisation, alkenes add to themselves

as this addition proceeds further a long, molecular chain is formed

the alkene is a repeating unit in the chain (the monomer) - the chain itself is the polymer

70

in terms of naming, what happens when an alkene becomes a polymer?

you add 'poly' before the name of the alkene

e.g. polypropene

71

in the context of polymers, what is an alkene called?

a monomer

72

is a batch process efficient?

no

73

is crude oil alkanes, alkenes, or both?

only alkanes

74

is ethene a saturate or unsaturated hydrocarbon? why?

unsaturated

it contains a double bond

75

is it possible to make pure alcohol by fermentation?

no

76

is the Ozone vital and why?

yes

it is a protective layer made of O3

it stops harmful sun rays reaching the Earth

77

is yeast a chemical?

no

78

is making ethanol by fermentation carbon neutral?

it can be

79

less useful fractions of crude oil = .... hydrocarbons

longer

80

long chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter chain alkanes by ... cracking, using ... or ... as the catalyst and a temperature in the range of ...

long chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter chain alkanes by catalytic cracking, using silica or alumina as the catalyst and a temperature in the range of 600-7000C

81

many useful hydrocarbons are found in ......

e.g. ......

fossil fuels

e.g. coal, gas, crude oil

82

Match substances A, B, C and D with the numbers 1-4

A. Ethanol

B. Ethene

C. Helium

D. Poly(propene)

1. It is an unreactive gas

2. It is produced when an alkene reacts with steam

3. It is a polymer

4. It belongs to a group of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n

A = 2

B = 4

C = 1

D = 3

83

Match the pollutant (1-4) with its effect (A-D):

1. Carbon DIoxide

2. Sulfur dioxide

3. Particulates  

4. Carbon monoxide 

 A. Poisons humans

  B. Greenhouse Effect

C. Acid rain

D. Global dimming

 

1 = B

2 = C

3 = D

4 = A

84

name this compound:

CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3

85

name this compound:

CH3CH2CH2Cl

86

name this compound:

CH3CH=CHCH3

87

name this compound:

CH3CHBrCH3

88

name this displayed formula

2-methyl-propane

89

name this displayed formula

propan-1-ol

90

name this displayed formula

butan-2-ol

91

name this displayed formula

but-2-ene

92

name this displayed formula

propan-2-ol

93

name this displayed formula

but-1-ene

94

on what scale is crude oil refined?

a massive scale

95

plastics, such as polythene, have replaced many traditional materials, such as iron, glass and paper to make everyday objects

give a different reason for each material as to why it has been replaced

plastic is tougher and can stretch, unlike paper

plastic doesn't rust, unlike iron

plastic is cheaper than glass and doesn't break as easily

96

What is Polyvinyl Chloride also known as?

Polychloroethene

97

Polythene is a plastic made industrially in a polymerisation reaction. Which two of the following statements are true about this process?

A. Chnaging the conditions of the reaction does not change the reaction products

B. The reaction is an addition reaction

C. The reaction must be carries out in a sterile environment since the raw materials are very sensitive to other chemicals

D. A catalyst can be used to speed the reaction up

B and D

98

show CH4 and Br2 undergo photolysis

CH4 + Br2 --> CH3Br + HBr

99

show propene make polypropene

100

show the electron configuration in a double bond of a hydrocarbon

101

show the subistitution reaction of bromo-ethane with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

102

state three characteristics of a homolguos series

each member of the series has the same general formula

similar chemical reactivity

same functional group (or reactivity)

the CH2 number increases each time

103

substances with lower boiling points (e.g. C- C4) are they mostly volatile or not? (in terms of crude oil)

mostly volatile

104

talk about ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)

they were found in aerosols, fridges and packaging materials made from expanded polystyrene

these CFCs drifted up to the upper atmopshere and began destroying the Ozone layer which let harmful sun rays reach the Earth's surface

in some areas the Ozone layer disappeared completely

many people developed skin cancer

in the 1980s the hole in the Ozone layer was such a worry that CFCs were banned for use in aerosols, fridges and packaging materials

105

talk about the reactivity of haloalkanes

relatively unreactive at ground level but can get into the upper atmosphere where the sunlight acts on them again and makes them attack the Ozone

106

this information is on a packet of crisps:

Typical nutritional values per 34.5 gram packet of crisps

Energy: 183 kJ

Carbohydrate: 17.1 grams

Fat - saturates: 0.9 grams

Mono unsaturates: 9.3 grams

Poly unsaturates: 1.0 grams

Salt: 0.5 grams

Unsaturated fats are different from saturated facts because unsaturated fats:

A. contain less iodine

B. contain double carbon carbon bonds

C. have highter melting points

D. dissolve in water

B

107

this information is on a packet of crisps:

Typical nutritional values per 34.5 gram packet of crisps

Energy: 183 kJ

Carbohydrate: 17.1 grams

Fat - saturates: 0.9 grams

Mono unsaturates: 9.3 grams

Poly unsaturates: 1.0 grams

Salt: 0.5 grams

What is the total amount of unsaturated fat in a packet of these crisps?

A. 9.3 g

B. 10.3 g 

C. 11.2 g 

D. 11.7 g

B

108

this information is on a packet of crisps:

Typical nutritional values per 34.5 gram packet of crisps

Energy: 183 kJ

Carbohydrate: 17.1 grams

Fat - saturates: 0.9 grams

Mono unsaturates: 9.3 grams

Poly unsaturates: 1.0 grams

Salt: 0.5 grams

Approximately how much energy would be provided by 100 grams of these crisps?

A. 400 kJ

B. 530 kJ

C. 720 kJ

D. 1830 kJ

B

109

This question is about cracking large hydrocarbn molecules. Cracking is achieved by using either a high temperature and pressure without a catalyst, or a low temperature and pressure with a catalyst. Whichever method is chosen, the following statements are true:

the energy for cracking is provided by burning fossil fuels;

the zeolite catalysts used are not very expensive

the catalyst is not used up in this process

the cracking plant is often built near the oil refinary

Which of the following occurs during cracking?

A. Small hydrocarbon molecules join together

B. The hydrocarbon molecules become saturated

C. The hydrogen molecules react together

D. The hydrocarbon molecules are decomposed

D

110

 

In which equation do the products include two different alkenes?

A. C15H32 ---> 2C2H4 + C3H6 + C8H18

B. C15H32 ---> C2H2 + C5H10 + C8H18 + H2

C. C15H32 ---> C8H18 + C7H14

D. C15H32 ---> C7H16 + C8H16

A

111

This question is about vegetable oils

Write the letter corresponding to the correct word in the space in the paragraph

A. Bromine

B. Hydrogen

C. Nickel

D. Water

Oils can from an emulsion when mixed with ... and shaken. Unsaturated oils can react to turn red-brown ... to colourless. Unsaturated oils are hardened when they react with ..., and this reaction takes place at 60oC with a ... catalyst.

Oils can from an emulsion when mixed with D and shaken. Unsaturated oils can react to turn red-brown A to colourless. Unsaturated oils are hardened when they react with B and this reaction takes place at 60oC with a C catalyst.

112

upon what physical property does fractional distillation depend on?

different boiling points

113

UPVC windows are made from a plymer called poly vinyl chloride. PVC windows are relatively cheap because:

A. PVC is in limited supplu

B. There is a high demand for PVC windows

C. The monomer used in PVC manufacture is widely available

D. There is little competition between PVC window sellers

C

114

UPVC windows are made from a plymer called poly vinyl chloride. The monomer used to make UPVC windows is:

A. vinyl chlorine

B. vinyl chloride

C. ethane

D. chloroethane

B

115

UPVC windows are made from a plymer called poly vinyl chloride. PVC is 'fit for purpose' in window manufacture because:

A. It is chemically reactive

B. It is waterproof

C. It is transparent

D. They are self-cleaning

B

116

Using your knowledge of a healthy diet and this information:

a packet of crisps contains 0,5g of salt

a slice of bread ocntains 0.5g of salt

many processed foods contain salt

the guideline daily amount of salt for an adult is 6.0g

it is fair to deduce that:

A. more salt should be added to each packet of crisps

B. adults should eat at least one packet of crisps each day

C. adults should not eat crisps

D. it is unecessary toadd salt to crisps

D

117

what acid is found in lemon, lime and oranges?

citric acid

118

what are alkanes?

the simplest hydrocarbon

 methane — CH4 

ethane — C2H6

propane — C3H8

butane — C4H10

have a central chain of carbon atoms

119

what are haloalkanes used as?

anaesthetics

120

what are polymers and what are they made from?

made from many monomers (alkenes)

they are long chain hydrocarbons

121

what are the advantages of hydration of ethene to produce ethanol?

continuos flow provess - more efficient than batch process

rapid reaction

produces much purer ethanol

122

what are the advantages of production of ethanol by fermentation?

uses renewable resources - will never run out, unlike hydration of ethene methid

reaction conditions are not exceeding expensive - gentle temperatures and ordinary pressures

123

what are the disadvantaged of production of ethanol by fermentation?

batch process - inefficient

impure ethanol produced - needs to be purified by fractional distillation

slow reaction - takes several days

124

what are the disadvantages of hydration of ethene to produce ethanol?

uses finite resources - will one day run out

reaction conditions are expensive - high temperatures, high pressures, high input of energy

125

what are the first four members of the carboxylic acid homologuos series?

methanoic acid

ethanoic acid

propanoic acid

butanoic acid

126

what are the possible polluting producst of the combustion of polychloroethene

HCl

127

what are the possible polluting products of combustion of polyethene

carbon monoxide

128

what are the reaction conditions used in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

high temperatures (3000C)

high pressures (60-70 atmospheres)

needs a hugh input of energy

129

what are the reaction conditions used in making ethanol by fermentation?

gentle temperatures

ordinary pressures

130

what are the starting materials in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

ethene

steam

131

what are the two different methods for producing alcohol?

fermentation

production from ethene

132

what are the two methods by which polymers are made?

addition polymerisation

condensation polymerisation

133

what are the uses of many polymers

plastics

134

what are the environmental impacts of plastics on air?

Manufacturing plastics in industries releases huge quantities of carbon monoxide, dioxin, hydrogen cyanide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) which heavily pollute the air - can cause respiratory diseases, nerve system disorders and immune suppression, cancer

135

what are the environmental impacts of plastics on water?

86% of ocean debris is plastic

Over one million seabirds and marine mammals die each year from plastic ingestion of entanglement

Seabirds and mammals can mistake plastic for food which can choke them, poisoned them, impede their digestion causing them to starve

Plastic can clog sewages which stagnate water creating an ideal habitat for mosquitos and other parasites

Plastic can choke drains which aids flooding

In 2012 it was estimated that 165 million tonnes of plastic polluted the ocean

136

what are the environmental impacts of plastics on soil?

Landfill sites are full of micro-organisms which breakdown biodegradable plastic which in turn releases methane (a powerful greenhouse gas) which contributes to global warming

Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals can enter groundwater or other water sources and infect the drinking water

Reduces soil fertility

Can lessen the growth of plants and trees by blocking the absorption of minerals, water and other nutrients

137

what are the uses of polypropene?

buckets

plastic crates

parcel string

chairs

kettles

138

what are the uses of polypropenenitrile?

fibres for clothes

139

what are the uses of polystyrene?

food packaging and containers

insulation

packing material

140

what are the uses of polyvinylalcohol?

a lubricant for the relief of symptoms of dry eye

plastic bags

141

what are the uses of polyvinylchloride (PVC)?

doubl-glazing

gutters

142

what bond does crude oil have?

C-C single bond

143

what catalyst is used in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

phosophoric acid (H3PO4)

144

what catalyst is used when ethanol is dehydrated?

aluminium oxide (or concentrated H2SO4)

145

what did aerosols contain?

haloalkanes

146

what do all hydrocarbons burn well to produce

carbon dioxide and water

147

what do carbon atoms do?

form strong covalent bonds with each other

join into chains of different lengths to make different hydrocarbon compounds

148

what do oil rigs in the middle of the see drill for?

reservoirs of crude oil 

149

what does carcinogen cause?

cancer

150

what does fractiotional distillation do to crude oil?

separates useful components

151

what does incomplete combustion produce?

any hydrocarbon + (limited) oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water

e.g. incomplete combustion of propane:

C3H8 + 502 --> 3CO2 + 4H2O

152

what does organic mean?

‘from living things’

153

what does photolysis literally mean?

light split

154

what does the dehydration of ethanol produce?

ethene

155

what does the word saturated mean in the context of oil and alkanes

by having only carbon single bonds, they have bonded with a maximum number of atoms

maximum number of hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms

156

what happens during photlysis

the bonds are split using U.V. light which is found in sun rays

157

what happens if we try and dispose of polymers by burning them?

they ive of toxic products such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen or hydrochloric acid, depending on the structure of the polymer

it is particularly hazardous to burn poly(cholorethene) (polyvinylchloride, PVC) as toxic compounds such as HCL and polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs) are fromed

chemists are devising wyas of removing toxic compounds: for example, HCl is removed as hydrochloric acid by passing the waste gases up spray towers

158

what happens in condensation polymerisation?

the addition of two monomers releases a small molecule, usually water

159

what happens to halogens in the sunlight?

they react 

the halogen is decoulorised and the alkane becomes a haloalkane

160

what happens to halogens reactivity down the group?

it decreases

161

what happens to the double bond when alkenes make polymers?

the double bond opens up and adds onto the next alkene, forcing it open etc..., until a long chain forms

162

what happens to the produced ethanol in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

it is condensed as a liquid

163

what happens to the unreacted ethene in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

it is recycled through the process

164

what happens when when the carbon chains gets longer (more carbon atoms) in terms of fraction distillistaion?

 the boiling points get higher as there are more chains to break

165

what is >C70 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

bitumen for roads and roofing

166

what is a homologous series?

a series of compouds that have similar chemical properties

same general formula

same functional group

same number of electrons on the outer shell

similar chemical reactivity

differentiated by CH2 group

167

what is a hydrocarbon?

compounds made from only carbon and hydrogen

168

what is a repeat unit of a polymer?

repeat units make up the long chain

169

what is bromine water (Br2 (aq)) used for?

to test for double bond (unsaturated)
the bromine molecule adds across the double bond

170

what is C10 to C16 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

jet fuel

paraffin

lighting and heating

171

what is C14 to C20 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

diesel fuels

172

what is C1 to C4 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

liquefied petroleum gas

173

what is C20 to C50 used for?

lubricating oils, waxes, polishes

174

what is C5C10 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

petrol for vehicles

175

what is C5C9 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

chemicals

176

what is cracking?

the process where a long chain alkane is broken down from larger molecules into smaller molecules, more useful alkanes and alkenes

177

what is crude oil?

a liquid of which many solids are dissolved in

178

what is dehydration?

removal of water from a compound

179

what is ethanoic acid found in?

vinegar

180

what is formed when ethanol is oxidised in air?

ethanoic acid

181

what is hydration of ethene?

reacting ethene with steam

182

what is is C20 to C70 used for (from crude oil fractional distillation)?

fuels for ships, factories and central heating

183

what is isomerism?

compounds with the same molecular formular but a different displayed formula ( --> different structure)

184

what is methanoic acid found in?

stinging nettles

ants

185

what is organic chemistry?

the study of carbon compounds  - living or once living

186

what is produces when ethanol is oxidised?

ethanoic acid

i.e. vinegar

187

what is the backbone of a repeat unit?

the double bond 

e.g. C = C

188

what is the best way to deal with polymers?

recycle them

this can be difficult as the different types are difficult to seperate

plastics made from recycled polymers are of lower quality

189

what is the charge of a carboxylate ion?

1-

190

what is the common name of ascorbic acid?

vitamin C

191

what is the common percentage composition of alcohol blended fuels?

25%

192

what is the displayed formula of ethene?

193

what is the displayed formula for butanoic acid?

194

what is the displayed formula for ethanoic acid?

195

what is the displayed formula for methanoic acid?

196

what is the displayed formula for propanoic acid?

197

what is the displayed formula of butene?

198

what is the equation for the cracking of paraffin

C31H64 (parrafin) ---> C2H4 (ethene) + C29H60 (alkane)

199

what is the formula of ethanol?

C2H5OH

200

what is the functional group for carboxylic acid?

[COOH]

201

what is the functional group of alcohol?

OH

202

what is the general eqaution/diagram for substitution reactions of alkanes?

203

what is the general formula for alkanes?

Cn H2n+2

204

what is the general formula for alkenes?

Cn H2n

205

what is the general formula for carboxylic acids?

CnH2nO2

206

what is the general formula for the alcohols?

CnH2n+1OH

207

what is the main source of alkenes?

cracking

208

what is the most common carboxylic acid?

vinegar

209

what is the name of the >C70 fraction in fractional distillation?

residue

210

what is the name of the C10 to C16 fraction in fractional distillation?

kerosine (paraffin oil)

211

what is the name of the C14 to C20 fraction in fractional distillation?

diesel oils

212

what is the name of the C1 to C4 fraction in fractional distillation?

gases

213

what is the name of the C20 to C470 fraction in fractional distillation?

fuel oil

214

what is the name of the C20 to C50 fraction in fractional distillation?

lubricating oil

215

what is the name of the C5 to C10​ fraction in fractional distillation?

petrol (gasoline)

216

what is the name of the C5 to C9 fraction in fractional distillation?

naphtha

217

what is the problem with polymers such as polyethene

they contain non-polar bonds (e.g. C-H) or strong bonds (e.g C-F), making them unreactive. Because of this, they are non-biodegradable. Therefore, they persist in the environment and cause a litter problem

 

218

what is the quality of product in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

produces a much purer ethanol than fermentation

219

what is the quality of the product when making ethanol by fermentation?

produces very impure ethanol which needs further refining

220

what is the rate of reaction in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

rapid

221

what is the rate of recation in making ethanol by fermentation?

slow, taking several says for each batch

222

what is the raw material for making ethanol via hydration?

crude oil

223

what is the result of the pollution from fossil fuels?

acid rain (from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides)

greenhouse effect (CO2 is a greenhouse gas)

224

what is the small molecule usually released in condensation polymerisation?

water

225

what is the term used to describe the process of a vapour changing into a liquid

condensation

226

what is the test for ethene?

Br2 water

turns from red-brown / organe to colourless

227

what are the uses of polyethene?

plastic bags, bottles, films, containers

coating on electrical wires

228

what is the use of polytetrafluoroethene?

non-stick surfaces on pans and ultra glide pads on computer mice

229

what is the word and symbol equation for hydration of ethene?

ethene + steam ---> ethanol

CH2 = CH2 (g) + H2O(g) ---> CH3CH2OH (g)

230

what is the Naptha Fraction fraction of crude oil? 

used for making plastics

231

what is the suffix of carboxylic acids?

oic

e.g. methanoic acid

232

what is viscosity in terms of crude oil

thickness

233

what is volatility in terms of crude oil?

 tendency of a substance to vaporise

234

what is yeast?

a microorganism

235

what reactions do alkanes undergo instead of addition?

substitution reactions

236

what resources are used in making ethanol by fermentation?

renewable resources

sugar beat or sugar cane or other starchy material

237

what state of matter are substances with middle boiling points (C5- C19) (of crude oil)?

liquids

238

what state of matter are substances with higher boiling points (C20 --->​) (of crude oil)?

solids

239

what state of matter are substances with lower boiling points (C1 - C4) (of crude oil)?

gases

240

what states of matter is crude oil a mixture of?

liquid

gas

241

what term is used for fuels that have no net release of CO2 into the atmosphere?

carbon neutral

242

what three things dos polymerisation frequently use?

hig pressure

heat

a catalyst (Ziegler-Natta catalyst)

243

what type of process is used in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

continuos flow process

a stream of reactants constantly being passed over the catalyst

244

what type of process is used in making ethanol by fermentation?

a batch process

everything is mixed together in a reaction vessel, then left for several days

the batch is removed and a new reaction is set up

245

what type of reactions do alkenes undergo?

addition reactions

the double bond is broken and new atoms are added 

246

how do you name hydrocarbons?

meth

eth

prop

but

pent

.... maths name

+ suffix (type of molecule)

alkane - ane

alkene

alcohol - an/ol or en/ol

 

247

what resources are used in making ethanol through hydration of ethene?

finite resources

once all the oil has been used up, there won't be any more

248

when crude oil is heated it is a vapour that ....... up the gas tube and ...... the connecting tubes

...... there for a few minutes whilst its being produced

as the vapour passes along the connecting tubes it is ..... and ..... into a liquid by a jacket of cold water

when heated it is heated vapour rises up the gas tube and down the connecting tubes

steadies there for a few minutes whilst its being produced

as the vapour passes along the connecting tubes it is cooled and condenses into a liquid by a jacket of cold water

249

when drawing an isomer, how should you image the C chain?

as a string

change the string not the shape

the connectivity can be the same and many people get caught out by this

250

when ethanol is made from fermentation and a balloon is securely attached to the side of the flask containing the ethanol being made, what happens?

the balloon will start to inflate

carbon dioxide will be present in the balloon - the yeast respires anaerobically

251

when heated crude oil is a vapour at...

68oC

252

which are more reactive: alkanes or alkenes?

alkenes

alkanes are single bonds (saturated)

253

which gas is produced when carboxylic acids react with sodium carbonate?

CO2

254

which gas is produced when reactive etals are mixed with carboxylic acids?

H2

255

which has the higher boiling point, ethane or ethanol?

ethanol

256

which is more efficient: a batch process or a continuos process

a continuos process

257

Which one of the following statements is true?

A. Polymers are long chain molecules that are easily broken down by applying heat

B. Polymers are usually solid since they intramolecular forces between polymer molecules are strong

C. Polymers are long chain molecules that have high melting points due to the strong intermolecular forces between the molecules

D. Polymers are high density because of the very strong covalent bonds between neighbouring chains

C

258

Which one of the following are fractions of crude oil?

A. Naptha

B. Napthol

C. Bitumen

D. Kerosol

A and C

259

Which one of the following is a general formula for an alkene?

A. CnH2n+2

B. CnH2n

C. Cn+2H2

D. C2nH2n+2

B

260

Which one of the following is an alkane?

A. Propene

B. Butane

C. Methanol

D. Hydrogen

B

261

Which one of the following statements is true?

A. Crude oil is made up of alkanes of the same chain length

B. Crude oil is a mixture of alkenes only

C. Crude oil is not a mixture of alkanes or alkenes

D. Crude oil is a mixture of different hydrocarbons

D

262

which three elements are found in alcohols?

C, H, O

263

Which two followng molecules can be used directly as a raw material to make a polymer?

A. Propene

B. Butane

C. 2-methyl-2-choloropentene

D. Nonane

A and C

264

Which two of the following are caused by excessive amounts of carbon dioxie in the atmosphere?

A. Melting of polar ice caps

B. Eutrophication

C. Deforestation

D. Seasons starting prematurely

A and D

265

Which two of the following gases are produced when a polymer is burned?

A. Carbon dioxide

B. Dioxins

C. Argon

D. Nitrogen sulphide

A and B

266

Which two of the following statements are true?
A. Smaller chain alkenes are more useful as fuels than longer chains because they are less volatile

B. Long chain alkanes are broken down by heat in an industrial process to make them into more useful products

C. Alkenes cannot be used as fuels becuase they contain too many impurities

D. The chemical products of combustion of alkanes and alkenes are the smae

A and B

267

which two products are formed when glucose is fermented with yeast?

CO2 and ethanol

268

which two products form when alcohols burn completely in oxygen?

CO2 and H2O

269

which two products form when carboxylic acids burn completely in oxygen?

CO2 and H2O

270

why are British oil refineries located away from built up areas?

they are noisy and polluting

271

why are British oil refineries located in coastal positions

crude oil is extracted from the sea - close transport distance

272

why are halogens used in photolysis?

they have weak bonds

easily broken by U.V. light

273

Why are plastics a problem to dispose of? Pick one option;

A. Because they are readily broken down by bacteria

B. Because they are non-biodegradable

C. Because they are biodegradable

D. Because they form toxic substances when left in landfill sites

B

274

Why can petrol and diesel be operated by fractional distillation? (1 mark)

 

They each have different boiling points

275

why is burning alkanes useful?

they are flammable gases and useful fuels

276

why is impossible for alkanes to undergo addition reactions?

they do not have a double bond

277

why is it impossible to make pure alcohol by fermentation?

yeast is killed by +15% alcohol in the mixture

it needs to be purified by fractional distillation

278

write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of propane

propane + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water

C3H8 + 5O2 ---> 3CO2 + 4H2O

279

write a balanced equation for the incomplete combustion of propane, where a toxic gas is formed

propane + oxygen ---> carbon monoxide + water

2C3H8 + 7O2 ---> 6CO + 8H2O

280

write an equation for the cracking of dodecane (C12H26) into decane (C10H22) and ethene

dodecane ---> decane + ethene

C12H26 ---> C10H22 + C2H4

281

write an equation for the cracking of dodecane (C12H26) into octane and butene

dodecane ---> octane + butene

C12H26 ---> C8H18 + C4H8

282

write the molecular formula of this structure and refer to its:
boiling point

flammability

viscosity

volatility

need to be cracked

360C

highly flammable

very runny

very volatile

doesn't need to be cracked

283

write the molecular formula of this structure and refer to its:
boiling point

flammability

viscosity

volatility

need to be cracked

1740C

flammable

viscous liquid

volatile

may need to be cracked

284

write the molecular formula of this structure and refer to its:
boiling point

flammability

viscosity

volatility

need to be cracked

3020C

not flammable

very viscous liquid

not very volatile

needs to be cracked

285

write the reaction for the complete combustion for heptane (C7H16) and explain why the reaction causes the volume to increase

heptane + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water

C7H16 + 1102 ---> 7CO2 + 8H2O

there are now more molecules (15) on the right than on the left (12)

286

These are the formulae for three hydrocarbons: C2H4, C2H6, C3H6

Which one of the follwong shows the hydrocarbons that could form polymers, and gives correct reasons why they can polymerise?

A. C2H4 and C2H6 because their molecules are saturated

B. C2H4 and C3H6 because their molecules have a double carbon carbon bond

C. C2H4 and C3H6 because their molecules are saturated

D. C2H4 and C2H6 because their molecules have a double carbon carbon bond

B