Monday: History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Monday: History Deck (206):
1

Liberal presidents like Ismael Montes controlled this country during its switch to a tin-exporting economy, while its current president once demonstrated the difference between cocaine and its signature crop of coca by holding up a coca leaf at the U.N.

Bolivia

1

This war was sparked by Macon's Bill No. 2, and Tecumseh died during its Battle of the Thames

War of 1812

1

The Soviet Union’s post-war boundaries were formally acknowledged at a 1975 set of accords named for this nation’s capital.

Finland

1

This man worked with Jules Favre to negotiate the Treaty of Frankfurt, and he sent Marshal MacMahon to restore order in the capital, resulting in the Bloody Week.

Thiers

1

 It won the Battle of Mohacs against  Hungary, but was defeated by King Jan Sobieski of Poland when it tried to capture Vienna.

Ottoman Empire

2

He wrote a work displayed prominently at Nuremberg rallies which advocates killing Jews.

Martin Luther

3

The members of this dynasty were all descended from Robert the Strong

Capetian Dynasty

3

Clifford Cummings headed a project investigating this body.

Moon

3

She interpreted a tornado as divine approval for her actions, begun after receiving a message to "Go to Kiowa," and referred to herself as “a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus.”

Carrie Nation

4

This ruler consolidated power by merging the conservative Carlist party with the Falange (fa-LON-hay) party founded by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera.

Francisco Franco

4

Name this South American country that, in 1973, switched from the socialist rule of Salvador Allende (EYE-end-ay) to the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (PEE-noh-chayt).

Chile

4

Its bloodiest battle took place at Lundy's Lane.

War of 1812

4

A curse on this country is blamed for the death of a Nazi governor during World War II. 

Kingdom of Bohemia

4

He served as governor of two different states, and authored the declaration of rights and grievances for the Stamp Act Congress

John Dickenson

4

This country fought in the Continuation War  after giving up control of the Hanko Peninsula.

Finland

4

This man was the first to use the word Megalonyx to describe a certain genus of ground sloth.

Thomas Jefferson

4

Name this man during whose presidency the Lewis and Clark Expedition took place.

Thomas Jefferson

4

The VENTRILOQUIST network was informed of this event when its planners broadcast two lines of Verlaine’s “Autumn Song” over the radio.

D-Day

5

Name this country that has recently been led by prime minister Romano Prodi from Rome.

Italy

5

In one year, this leader signed a Concordat with the Vatican and a pact with the U.S., and two years later his country entered the UN.

Francisco Franco

5

According to legend, anybody who illegitimately put on the crown of this kingdom would die within a year.

Kingdom of Bohemia

5

Under King (+) Ottokar the Great, this kingdom briefly had a coastline on the Adriatic sea, but lost it at the Battle of Marchfeld, where it was defeated by its two neighbors, Austria and Hungary.

Bohemia

5

The defenders in this operation had prepared for an assault on Pas-de-Calais and were commanded by General Rommel.

D-Day

5

Name this  country that shares its name with a U.S. state

Georgia

6

During the Korean War, he had wanted to cross the Yalu River  to attack the Chinese, and was eventually removed from command after trying to drum up support for this offensive in Congress.

Douglas MacArthur

7

Name this Crusade which attempted to peacefully take Jerusalem in 1212, which failed entirely after recruiting youthful members.

The Children's Crusade

8

He convened the synod of Pavia in an attempt to get Victor IV elected pope over Alexander III, and after Victor's death, he successfully placed Paschal III as antipope.

Frederick Barbarossa

9

This ruler promoted commerce by abolishing toll barriers and establishing a policy of free markets and open guilds in Kano.

Oda Nobunaga

11

He imposed crop productivity-based taxation rates in the dahsala system inspired by his former Pashtun adversary, Sher Shah Suri.

Akbar

12

This kingdom was first ruled by the Premyslid dynasty.

Bohemia

14

This republic was created when, in 1946, Victor Emmanuel III abdicated the throne.

Italy

15

In the 1990s, the Clementine mission studied this body.

Moon

15

Supported by the Ghibellines, this man named his son Henry VI as his successor before departing on the Third Crusade.

Frederick Barbarossa

15

With Francois Mignet he founded the anti-Bourbon daily Le National, and this leading Orleanist was the chief rival of Francois Guizot in the July Monarchy.

Thiers

16

This empire was known as the "sick man of Europe" before World War I.

Ottoman Empire

17

Along with Lucius III, he convened the synod of Verona, which condemned Waldensianism and Albigensianism

Frederick Barbarossa

18

Name this civil war that took place after Yakubu Gowon came to power, in which a primarily Igbo secessionist state was created in 1967 before it was reabsorbed into its larger African country in 1970. 

Nigerian Civil War

18

Steve Biko was killed by police in this country, and a protest by people who wanted to be taught in English led to police violence in Soweto.

South Africa

20

He strengthened his position as a staunch abolitionist with his speech against the Compromise of 1850, in which he argued that there was “a higher law than the Constitution.”

William Sewell

20

During World War II, it was led by Carl Mannerheim and lost the Winter War to the Soviets.

Finland

21

Name this man who put down the Paris Commune and was elected as first president of the French Third Republic. 

Thiers

23

This European country was home to the 1970s "historic compromise" between its communist party and its other political parties.

Italy

24

This country was the home of a member of the Oxygen Green, Marc Gonslaves, Kieth Stanwell and Thomas Howes, until Operation Jacque, was launched to rescue a person with French citizenship, Ingrid Betancourt, who supported Alvaro Uribe's third term after years of captivity with FARC.

Colombia

24

Identify this nation, whose other current problems include the Medellin drug cartel.

Colombia

25

One of the greatest naval leaders of this empire was Hayreddin Barbarossa. 

Ottoman Empire

26

Name this Frankish dynasty which included Charlemagne.

Carolingian Dynasty

26

Bayezid II paid a bribe to have his brother Cem imprisoned in this city by Pierre d’Aubusson, who had earlier defended it from a 1480 Ottoman Siege.

Rhodes

27

After being expelled from Jerusalem in the 14th century, the Knights of St. John made this their base, although were forced to find a new home after it was sacked in 1522 by Suleiman the Magnificent.

Rhodes

28

Robert Taylor wrote a work called Vessel of Wrath: The Life and Times of... this historical figure.

Carrie Nation

29

This  country's southwest is the autonomous province of Ajaria. 

Georgia

30

The Maastricht Treaty required the  adoption of this item for most signatories except for Denmark and England, the latter of which still uses the pound.

The Euro

30

This program led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act and a pair of Civil Rights Acts, as well as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

Great Society

31

He designed the (*) Kansas-Nebraska Act before a split in his party caused John Breckinridge to receive more electoral votes than this man in the election of 1860

Stephen Douglas

32

Another group in this country is the Black Eagles, government combatted by using Search Bloc.

Colombia

33

Name  this man who railed against indulgences in the 95 Theses. 

Martin Luther

34

This country's independence movement was helped by the Battle of Chacabuco.

Chile

35

Name this satellite visited by Apollo 11.

Moon

35

Name this Islamic empire in modern-day Turkey.

Ottoman Empire

35

Name this Portuguese explorer, who in 1498 became the first European  to sail directly to India. 

Vasco de Gama

36

The most recent area of contention in this country is a region in its central north centered on Tshkinvali, where forces from this country fought with Russian troops in the fall of 2008

Georgia

37

This thinker posits that Satan claims all unredeemed humans in On the Bondage of the Will. 

Martin Luther

38

This man led a regiment in the Franco-Prussian War known as the Army of the Vosges

Giuseppe Garibaldi

39

Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II were supported by this man's military actions.

Giueseppe Garibaldi

40

This country lost the copper-rich territory of Antofagasta after its defeat in a war sometimes called the Saltpeter War.

Bolivia

41

Give this name of the winner at the Battle of Milvian Bridge, the first Christian Roman emperor.

Constantine

42

This nation was defeated by Paraguay in a conflict over the supposedly oil-rich Gran Chaco, and it lost its coastline in the War of the Pacific

Bolivia

43

Name this kingdom whose capital was Prague, which shares its name with the major geographic region  of the Czech Republic.

Bohemia

44

 Its leaders include one nicknamed “the Magnificent,” and under Mehmet II, this empire captured Constantinople in 1453 and renamed it Instanbul.

Ottoman Empire

45

A group called the Activists assassinated Nikolay Bobrikov during this country’s struggle for independence.

Finland

46

It also included the passage of the Economic Opportunity Act and the creation of Upward Bound, which were both part of its War on Poverty.

Great Society

47

One ruler of this empire was Suleiman the Magnificent.

Ottoman Empire

48

The planners of this military action marked out beaches called “Juno,” “Gold,” “Sword,” and “Omaha

D-Day

50

ne group in this country is Joint Task Force OMEGA, that was part of Operation JM

Colombia

51

He allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to win the Battle of Nagashino, but was killed by Akechi Mitsuhide in 1582

Oda Nobunaga

53

In his most famous post, he successfully resolved the Trent Affair and secured that the Confederacy would not gain foreign recognition

William Sewell

54

Name this Jamaican-born black nationalist who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and was a leader of the "Back to Africa" movement.

Marcus Garvey

55

Victories for this man came during an expedition against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

55

Name this set of social reforms enacted by Lyndon Johnson. 

Great Society

57

Succeeding the Carolingian dynasty, it held power for over three hundred years before being replaced by the Valois dynasty.

Capetian Dynasty

59

A group commanded by this man fought in and won the Battles of Milazzo and Volturno.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

60

The northwestern extension of this country is another ethnic enclave called Abkhazia. 

Georgia

61

A king of this dynasty who defeated the forces of emperor Otto IV at Bouvines was named Phillip Augustus

Capetian Dynasty

63

Name this victor of the Spanish Civil War who served as a fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until 1975.

Francisco Franco

64

This ruler triumphed over Hemu with the aid of Bairam Khan at the Second Battle of Panipat after the death of his father, Humayun.

Akbar

65

This politician caused a split in his party by rejecting the demands of William Yancey.

Stephen Douglas

66

 On the 500th anniversary of his most famous feat, Europe’s longest bridge was named for him

Vasco de Gama

67

Aruler of this name defeated his rival at the Battle of Chrysopolis, while another defeated Artabasdus early in his reign and was reportedly responsible for the death of Stephen the Younger. T

Constantine

69

One war simultaneous to this one saw its namesakes' Red Sticks faction attack the southeastern US, the Creek War.

War of 1812

70

This man married Jodhaa Bai, a (*) Rajput princess, and developed the syncretic Din-e-Ilahi personality cult as part of domestic reforms highlighted by his repeal of the jizya tax on non-Muslims

Akbar

71

 During this war, the poet Christopher Okigbo was killed. 

Nigerian Civil War

71

Name this October  1813 battle that resulted in Napoleon’s abdication and exile on Elba.

Battle of Leipzig

73

The second wave involved in this event was led by Stephen of Cloyes, but its members were sent home by Philip II after reaching Saint-Denis

The Children's Crusade

74

The treaty of Vereeniging ended the independence of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal in this modern day country, which had been settled by Boers who spoke Afrikaans. 

South Africa

76

This ruler adopted a banner depicting eiraku coins and used an official seal labeled "rule the empire by force."

Oda Nobunaga

77

Prior to this event, preparations were made against Scandinavia in Operation Fortitude, which employed inflatable artillery. 

D-Day

79

A company this man founded bought a vastly overpriced World War I coal boat, the S.S. Yarmouth, which this man planned to rename after Frederick Douglass

Marcus Garvey

80

This empire's "Tulip Era" saw major reforms, and its army was modernized during the “Auspicious Incident.”

Ottoman Empire

81

Name this “penman of the American Revolution” who wrote Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer. 

John Dickenson

82

The aircraft carriers Akagi, Kaga, Soryu and USS Yorktown were sunk during what naval battle between Isoroku Yamamoto and Chester Nimitz, fought exactly six months after Pearl Harbor in 1942?

Battle of Midway

83

This man once ordered the ship Miri to be set on fire with all its passengers inside. 

Vasco de Gama

84

This American proposed using units of length based on pendulums in his Plan for establishing uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson

86

One side in this war sacked Washington D.C., burning down the White House.

War of 1812

87

This leader increased Russian territory during the Finnish War and became King of Poland according to the Congress of Vienna

Alexander I

89

This ruler constructed the fortress of Azuchi Castle, ordered the massacre of the warrior monks at Mount Hiei, and defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto at the Battle of Okehazuma

Oda Nobunaga

89

One conflict in this battle saw forces under Stephen van Rensselaer unsuccessfully attack Queenston Heights, leading to the death of defender Isaac Brock

War of 1812

90

Name this Greek island city which was home to an ancient “colossus.” 

Rhodes

92

A ruler of this dynasty won all his battles except for the Battle of Cologne, including the Battle of (*) Tours.

Carolingian Dynasty

93

Preceded by the breaking of the code JN-25 and Operation Al, an invasion of Kiska and Attu, this battle resulted in Tamon Yamaguchi going down with his ship

Battle of Midway

95

The first group involved in this crusade was led by a shepherd from Germany, and its dismal failure may have included the sale of some of its members into slavery.

The Children's Crusade

96

Rulers of this dynasty include Louis the Pious, Pepin the Short, and Charles Martel

Carolingian Dynasty

97

This battle saw an early skirmish in which surprise fighting broke on in the streets of Wachau, but its beginning occurred as Austrian forces advanced on a Polish-held mill in Dölitz.

Battle of Leipzig

98

Paul Krugman called this item "doomed" in an article which compared Ireland's financial policy to Iceland, which does not use this and was free to devaluate. 

The Euro

100

It was the subject of Project Ranger and it was the target of the first generation of Pioneer missions

Moon

101

In addition authoring to On the Jews and their Lies and On the Babylonian Captivity of  the Church, he said "Here I stand; I can do no other. God help me," while being tried at the Diet of Worms, and translated the Bible into German.

Martin Luther

102

Its second most important official worked in a building called the “Sublime Porte” and had the title “Grand Vizier."

Ottoman Empire

103

During this event, attacking forces suffered high casualties trying to capture Pointe-du-Hoc.

D-Day

104

In this country, the Dutch native Henrik Verwoerd was assassinated by Dimitri Tsafendas, and members of the “Spear of the Nation” were charged with conspiracy in the Rivonia Trials. 

South Africa

106

One ruler of this dynasty was nearly killed when a gallery he was passing through collapsed, leading him to issue a decree known as the Ordinatio Imperii, which gave his son Bernard the title of King of Italy.

Carolingian Dynasty

107

In 1998, wreckage from this engagement was found by Robert Ballard.

Battle of Midway

107

This man was responsible for placing a padrão on the banks of the River of Good Omens, which is today better known as the Quelimane River.

Vasco de Gama

109

Recently the LRO was launched by NASA to study it.

Moon

111

Today the third most populous English-speaking country in North America, this is what island in the Greater Antilles with capital at Kingston?

Jamacia

112

Another of his works denies that Extreme Unction and Matrimony are sacraments

Matin Luther

113

While Minister of Public Works, this man constructed the last wall built around Paris, and he popularized the maxim “the king reigns but does not govern.” 

Thiers

114

Usually considered the successful execution of the Trachenburg Plan, this battle saw the French expulsed from a school house by Poniatowski and the Polish forces in the town of Markkleeberg. 

Battle of Leipzig

115

his leader was succeeded by Juan Carlos I after coming to power in a civil war that included the bombing of Guernica.

Francisco Franco

116

During the "Years of Lead," the Red Brigades kidnapped and murdered this country's prime minister, Aldo Moro

Italy

116

This country, which claims control over the breakaway region of  South Ossetia, is a Caucasian state that borders Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, and the Black Sea

Georgia

118

This country employed motti tactics to win the Battle of Raate Road, and it cooperated with Germany in Operation Silver Fox against Murmansk. 

Finland

120

name this French dynasty founded by Hugh in 987

Capetian Dynasty

121

e came into conflict with a certain Zamorin he believed to be a Christian, but soon returned home against a (*) monsoon on the São Gabriel. 

Vasco de Gama

122

This man was convicted of mail fraud regarding the sale of stock for his Black Star Line.

Marcus Garvey

123

A king of this dynasty who was succeeded by his uncle Phillip V and lived for five days was known as John the Posthumous

Capetian Dynasty

124

This territory fought the Long War against the Hapsburgs after winning  the Battle of Mohacs (MO-"hatch").

Ottoman Empire

125

Name this war in which Andrew Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans after its official end at the Treaty of Ghent.

War of 1812

126

During this man's presidency, Zebulon Pike explored part of a new addition to the United States. 

Thomas Jefferson

128

Name this grandson of Babur, the greatest Mughal emperor.

Akbar

130

Along with Thomas McKean, he was one of the two members of the Continental Congress to enter the military, and he opposed John Adams in the Continental Congress by voting against the Declaration of Independence.

John Dickenson

131

A military coup in this country installed a ruler who became one of the leading figures in Operation Condor.

Chile

132

133

The name of this program was coined by speechwriter Richard N. Goodwin, and it was notably laid out in a speech at the University of Michigan

Great Society

134

Name this daimyo whose goal of unifying all of Japan was achieved by his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Oda Nobunaga

135

Name this founder of the Medicine Lodge branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, known for smashing up saloons with a hatchet.

Carrie Nation

136

Despite being part of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the people in this kingdom spoke a Slavic language, and several of its kings were named Wenceslaus.

Bohemia

138

Name this Holy Roman Emperor who drowned on that Crusade and notably had a red beard.

Frederick Barbarossa

139

Derided by Karl Marx as a “Richelieu” and a “Demosthenes” for his party, this man gained national recognition with his defense of Henry Wyatt and William Freeman.

William Sewell

140

Historians argue about whether or not he knew about the assassination plot that brought him to power against his father Paul the First.

Alexander I

141

 Some participants in this event sought to capture the Merville Gun Battery as part of Operation Tonga. 

D-Day

143

This man prepared the first draft of the Articles of Confederation, and composed the Olive Branch Petition.

John Dickenson

144

Gondar became the capital of this country after its unification by King Fasilides. Its later rulers included Theodore II, who committed suicide after a British invasion, and Lij Yasu, who was deposed after converting to Islam.

Ethiopia

144

Representatives of the successor state to this empire signed the Treaty of Lausanne.

Ottoman Empire

145

One year before  this war, an attempted coup was organized by the "five (+) majors."

Nigerian Civil War

147

Frederick Charles of Hesse was very briefly proclaimed king of this country in 1918, and a war named for this country was concluded with the Treaty of Fredrikshamn

Finland

148

On his first voyage, he gave a province he passed on Christmas Day the name Natal, and he’d go on to places like Mombasa and Malindi on that voyage.

Vasco de Gama

149

This figure was imprisoned on the Isle of Pines before going into exile in Mexico, returning home on the yacht Granma

Fidel Castro

149

Name this empire that was replaced after World War I by Turkey. 

Ottoman Empire

151

This man was accused of being the "Messenger Boy of the White Klu Klux Kleagle" after this man met with KKK leader Edward Young Clarke.

Marcus Garvey

152

An emperor of this name was the subject of a prophecy when Germanus witnessed him defecate in his baptismal font, and thus gained the nickname Copronymous

Constantine

153

In the aftermath of this conflict, the National Commission for Rehabilitation coordinated "The Three Rs" of Reconstruction, Reconciliation, and Rehabilitation. 

Nigerian Civil War

154

The current head of state of this country is a member of the Movimiento al Socialismo Party

Bolivia

156

 In a letter about bridge building, this man was the first to use the English word catenary. 

Thomas Jefferson

157

Although he was attacked by Lewis Powell, unlike Lincoln, he survived the assassination attempt.

William Sewell

157

This American military officer controversially kept Emperor Hirohito from facing war crimes trials, and helped write the constitution of Japan.

Douglas MacArthur

158

Her second husband's involvement in the Jaybird-Woodpecker War forced their move to the area she is most associated with.

Carrie Nation

158

One side in this conflict had its capital at Enugu and was led by the former colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu. 

Nigerian Civil War

159

Other cities on this island included a base for English pirates, Port Royal, and a city primarily known today as a stop for cruise ships, Montego Bay.

Jamacia

160

He was elected the "Provisional President of Africa" at a 1920 convention in Liberty Hall.

Marcus Garvey

162

 It abrogated the Treaty of Ucciali and defeated a force led by Oreste Baratieri in its Tigray Region at the Battle of Adawa. 

Ethiopia

163

It was on this island that Sir Anthony Shirley burned the town of St. Jago, sixty years before the capture of Tower Isle expelled the Spanish completely.

Jamacia

165

Its commander at Adawa, Emperor Menelik II, was a cousin of Ras Tafari, who became emperor under the name Haile Selassie. 

Ethiopia

167

Name this country that ended apartheid soon before Nelson Mandela became  its first black president.

South Africa

168

According to legend, he was convinced to become a mystic by Baroness Barbara Juliana von Kriüdener, so he moved to Siberia and changed his identity to Fyodor Kuzmich after faking his death

Alexander I

169

Name this Scandinavian country with capital at Helsinki. 

Finland

170

A Burgundian force under Geoffroy de Thoisy helped fend off a 1444 Mamluk siege of this city. 

Rhodes

171

As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he almost caused a war with Britain in the Oriental Crisis of 1840, when he supported the Syrian campaign of Muhammad Ali. 

Thiers

172

The Spanish had earlier been defeated in Ocho Rios and had abandoned its capital at Spanish Town on this island

Jamacia

173

This creator of the Freeport Doctrine was instrumental to the passage of the Compromise of 1850.

Stephen Douglas

174

A ruler of this dynasty was crowned by Pope Stephen II.

Carolingnian Dynasty

175

Name this  event codenamed “Operation Overlord” in which the Allies invaded Normandy.

D-Day

177

The most famous one of this name issued the Edict of Milan and was written about by Eusebius

Constantine

178

This empire employed slave soldiers called Janisarries. 

Ottoman Empire

179

Though Napoleon’s side was bolstered by men from the Confederation of the Rhine, the Prince of Schwarzenherg’s coalition of six nations emerged victorious

Battle of Leipzig

181

This Russian leader employed Ioannis Kapodistrias, who became the first leader of the First Hellenic Republic, which became the modern nation of Greece.

Alexander I

183

Name this landlocked Latin American country currently ruled by Evo Morales.

Bolivia

184

In ancient times, its harbor was home to a wonder of the ancient world which was destroyed in a 226 BCE earthquake.

Rhodes

185

This country's center-right coalition is known as the "Pole of Freedoms."

Italy

186

This leader blamed his downfall on Alphonse de Rothschild, though that man had provided loans for this leader to pay a five billion franc indemnity ahead of schedule. 

Thiers

187

This country's first supreme director fought in that battle and was named (*) Bernardo O'Higgins.

Chile

189

He created a namesake wheel cipher and many of his scientific ideas can be found in his Notes on the State of Virginia .

Thomas Jefferson

190

The most recent country to adopt this item, on January 1, 2011, was Estonia. 

The Euro

191

A king of this dynasty was captured by Edward the Black Prince and was ransomed after the battle of Poitiers

Capetian Dynasty

192

Jim Lovell commanded a failed mission to reach it.

Moon

193

One ruler by this name overcame the rebellion of Perbundus and was victorious at the naval Battle of Syllaeum.

Constantine

194

One important turning point in this battle was Murat’s disastrous use of cavalry arranged in columns at Liebertwolkwitz, followed shortly by Blücher’s routing of Marmont’s French forces at Möckern. 

Battle of Leipzig

195

This man defended the adoption of the Constitution under the name “Fabius.”

John Dickenson

196

One of this man's policies was attacked in his rival's Peoria Speech.

Stephen Douglas

197

Name this Tsar during the Napoleonic Wars.

Alexander I

198

The first budgets for this program were  created by Kermit Gordon. 

Great Society

199

Prior to it, one commander faced an attack of psoriasis before being replaced by Raymond Spruance

Battle of Midway

200

Name this Secretary of State perhaps best known for his “folly,” the purchase of Alaska.

William Sewell

201

The translation of the Latin word "pueri" has led to some confusion as to the identity of the participants in this event.

The Children's Crusade

202

Identify this landlocked East African country with capital at Addis Ababa. 

Ethiopia

203

This man forced the thirty-three mansabdari to supply his army, and he employed the biographer Abul Fazl along with the musician Tansen and sage jester Birbal as one of his Nine Jewels

Akbar

204

After failing to seize Moncada barracks, his “History will absolve me” speech helped organize the 26th of July movement to depose Fulcengio Batista, after which he resisted the Bay of Pigs invasion along with his brother Raúl. 

Fidel Castro

205

Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, under the employ of Tsar Nicholas II, developed an alternative method to enhancing this invention

Photography

206