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Flashcards in Tuesday: Philosophy/Social Science Deck (101):
1

Name this book about the history of science, written by Thomas Kuhn.

The Structure of the Scientific Revolution

1

This philosopher discussed Bentham's panopticon prison in a work

Michel Foucault

2

In a work, he discusses the concept of épistémè

Michel Foucault

2

This thinker made strides in the field of ethics with his elenchus (el-eng-khos), and he noticed that great men such as Pericles often did not produce sons of quality and thus questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete (air-tee), or virtue, could be taught, as exemplified by his attempts to teach Meno.

Socrates

3

This author of The Birth of the Clinic wrote the three-volume History of Sexuality.

Michel Foucault

3

He collaborated with Hans Toch to write a book on collective behavior, and he also investigated the difficulty of getting a seat on the subway and handed out folders to far-flung individuals in the “lost letter experiment” testing the "six degrees of separation" hypothesis.

Stanley Milgram

3

Father-to-son and ruler-to-ruled are two of this man’s five relationships.

Confucius

3

Name this Greek philosopher whose namesake philosophical school is often unfairly equated to hedonism.

Epicurus

4

This philosopher is best known for a three volume work describing the basic analysis derived from fundamental axioms.

Betrand Russell

4

This man's final book claims Judaism is a renouncing religion

Sigmund Freud

5

Name this French thinker with a namesake “wager” who authored the Pensées.

Blaise Pascal

5

He wrote about one of his concepts in a work which contains the meaningless yet grammatically correct sentence,"Colorless green ideas sleep furiously."

Avram Chomsky

5

This process can be lengthened by a “challenge for cause” or through a “peremptory challenge,” in which no reason needs to be supplied.

Jury Selection

6

Name this activity in which an individual sacrifices its own reproductive success for that of others, exhibited by prairie dogs giving off a warning signal instead of running from predators.

Altruism

7

His definition of God as Being with infinitely many attributes appeared in a work in “geometric order” and reflects his pantheism

Baruch Spinoza

7

This man states that morality has a “foothold in the universe” in his essay “The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life,” which appears in a collection with an essay using the example of having faith in crossing a ledge.

William James

7

One of his works defining Socratic wisdom is called Philosophical Fragments, while his The Seducer's Diary is a section of a work where Cornelia is wooed by the writer Johannes Climacus.

Soren Kierkegaard

8

This philosopher’s paradoxes state that no man desires evil, and that virtue alone is sufficient for happiness.

Socrates

8

Mencius was a follower of this philosopher.

Confucius

9

Name this anthropologist who wrote Patterns of Culture and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword.

Ruth Fulton Benedict

10

Hamilton's Rule, which governs the degree to which it occurs, has been generalized as “kin selection” theory.

Altruism

11

He used one of his approaches to write a religious text, the Meditations on First Philosophy.

Rene Descartes

11

Name this concept that Friedrich Hayek wrote about The Road to, and which describes the state of peasants in feudalism.

Serfdom

12

This philosopher argued that if multiple explanations both account for a set of data, then all should be admitted, though his best known contribution to science was his non-deterministic statement of atomic theory.

Epicurus

13

This man coined a term for the mechanism by which the state controls the life of its people, a mechanism he called "biopower."

Michel Foucault

13

This economist suggested that the Federal Reserve increase money supply with real GNP increase to control inflation; with Anna Schwartz, he co-authored A Monetary History of the United States.

Milton Friedman

14

This student of Zelig Harris put forth the "Minimalist Program" for current research into a concept he originated.

Avram Chomsky

15

Book Four of this work, "Of Systems of Political Economy", attacks mercantilism and specifically protectionist tariffs.

Wealth of Nations

16

This man taught the value of personal exemplification instead of adherence to a set of rules, which was a form of virtue ethics

Confucius

17

Name this French philosopher who wrote Discipline and Punish.

Michel Foucault

17

This student of Franz Boas discussed the “guilt” and “shame” cultures in an analysis of the society of Japan she wrote during World War Two.

Ruth Fulton Benedict

18

In addition to The Order of Things and The Archeology of Knowledge, this philosopher wrote of the hypocrisy of modern psychiatry

Michel Foucault

19

This philosopher introduced an analogy describing where the burden of proof should rest, which is called his “teapot.

Betrand Russell

20

In one work, this philosopher states, “All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.”

Thomas Paine

21

One of his works, Syntactic Structures, introduced his concept of transformational-generative grammar.

Avram Chomsky

23

Its author uses the mixture of water and alcohol, atomic theory, and the Copernican hypothesis to illustrate the title process, which results in paradigm shifts.

The Structure of the Scientific Revolution

24

Its first section compares agricultural societies to industrial ones, and studies pin manufacturing to illustrate ways in which the division of labor can increase industrial productivity.

Wealth of Nations

24

This philosopher stated, “Every proprietor owes to the community a ground rent for the land which he holds,” in a work entitled Agrarian Justice

Thomas Paine

25

He described the separation of a patient's body from the patient's identity as the "medical gaze."

Michel Foucault

26

Name this Chicago School monetarist who, with his wife Rose, wrote Free to Choose and Capitalism and Freedom.

Milton Friedman

27

Identify this author of Why I Am Not a Christian who collaborated with Alfred North Whitehead to write Principia Mathematica.

Betrand Russell

27

In addition to Clark and Word's study about ambiguity's role in promoting it, one test had participants fill out a survey while pumping the room full of smoke, while another test had subjects listen to a recording of a woman screaming.

Bystander Effect

29

This author of Madness and Civilization advocated the "unequal gaze" afforded by Bentham's Panopticon prison

Michel Foucault

30

This Jansenist argued that it was worth believing in God because, even if there is a low probability that God exists, there is an infinite payoff if he does.

Blaise Pascal

31

She compared the Dobu, Kwakiutl, and Zuni Cultures in one work, and she also authored Zuni Mythology based on other fieldwork with that tribe.

Ruth Fulton Benedict

32

It can also be lengthened when ensuring moderate views in order to achieve a “death qualification.”

Jury Selection

33

One work argues that this concept arises because coercion becomes necessary to implement central planning, claiming that this condition is the result of government control of the economy.

Serfdom

34

Name this legal process which in the United States usually results in the “impaneling” of twelve people to serve at a trial.

Jury Selection

35

One step in this process is a round of questioning called “voir dire.”

Jury Selection

37

This thinker wrote a work that argues we can avoid the ramified theory of types by introducing the axiom of reducibility

Betrand Russell

38

He described the absence of pain, or aponia, as well as a state of perfect tranquility known as ataraxia.

Epicurus

40

Richard Dawkins argued that it was subject to “subversion from within” in The Selfish Gene.

Altruism

42

He argued that prophets are not necessarily intelligent but simply imaginative and emphasized that religion should stay out of politics in Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, but his only work published under his name was about his contemporary, Descartes

Baruch Spinoza

43

Lactantius's Treatise on the Anger of God critiques one argument made by this philosopher, a trilemma considered the earliest statement of the problem of evil.

Epicurus

43

John Maurice Clark wrote about An Alternative to this status.

Serfdom

44

This philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period championed Li and Ren, which mean propriety and benevolence respectively.

Confucius

46

D. S. Wilson divided this concept into strong and weak forms, and this concept may also explain the sterility of most female social insects.

Altruism

48

This man castaside the notion of a succession of ideas in favor of a “stream of consciousness” in addition to arguing that the focus of spirituality should lie in what he termed religious “genius.”

William James

49

Another work argues that this concept is accompanied by “The End of Truth” and uses as examples Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia.

Serfdom

51

This man discusses the "analytic of finitude" in a work which begins with a discussion of Las Meninas.

Michel Foucault

52

A book by this author considers "oceanic" feelings and argues that the supression of instincts leads to misery.

Sigmund Freud

53

One of his concepts deals with transitions between deep and surface structures

Avram Chomsky

54

It was first outlined by Bibb Latane and John Darley in an article that argued it may result from the "diffusion of responsibility."

Bystander Effect

55

Name this Dutch Jew who wrote Ethics.

Baruch Spinoza

57

He claimed that the three heads of Good that men pursue are riches, fame, and pleasure in a work examining the differences between false, fictitious, and doubtful ideas, On the Improvement of Understanding

Baruch Spinoza

59

This work's last section, "Of the Revenue of the Sovereign or Commonwealth", discusses taxation and explains why debts from wars are unlikely to be paid off.

Wealth of Nations

60

A book by this man argues that the title figure was likely an Egyptian who was killed for his beliefs.

Sigmund Freud

61

This book uses the concept of an "invisible hand" to explain individuals acting in their own self-interests.

Wealth of Nations

62

Watkins, Toulmin, Lakatos, Feyerabend, and Popper held a symposium specifically to criticize this book, which explains that the individuals who argue from the standpoint of before and after the title process end up talking past one another

The Structure of the Scientific Revolution

64

This thinker's namesake paradox refers to the set of all sets that do not contain themselves

Betrand Russell

65

If excessive publicity causes this process to be untenable locally, a “change of venue” can be requested.

Jury Selection

66

Name this psychological effect exemplified by the murder of Kitty Genovese that posits people in a large group are less likely to help someone during a crisis.

Bystander Effect

67

This man downplayed differences between Protestant and Catholic concepts of God in his Letter to Voetius.

Rene Descartes

68

Name this American philosopher who wrote The Age of Reason, The Crisis, and Common Sense.

Thomas Paine

70

He wrote about the "medical gaze" in Birth of the Clinic

Michel Foucault

71

Name this skeptical philosopher who started his investigations by declaring “Je pense, donc je suis” or “I think, therefore I am.”

Rene Descartes

72

He argued that state licensing procedures limited entry to the medical profession, driving up costs, and this adviser to Augusto Pinochet described consumption patterns in his “permanent income hypothesis.”

Milton Friedman

74

This book later asserts that most view the title process as the addition of bricks to a building, lending it a certain "invisibility."

The Structure of the Scientific Revolution

75

Identify this author of The Interpretation of Dreams who was the Austrian founder of psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud

76

Two works of his stated: “Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered” and “The cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.”

Thomas Paine

78

This man presented himself as a “transmitter who invented nothing” and was the first to suggest a limit on the power of a ruler.

Confucius

80

Besides Moses and Monotheism and Civilization and Its Discontents, this thinker wrote a book claiming that certain experiences are products of wish fulfillment

Sigmund Freud

81

Name this MIT linguist and left-wing political writer.

Avram Chomsky

83

She edited the Journal of American Folklore from 1925 until 1940.

Ruth Fulton Benedict

84

Identify this author of The Varieties of Religious Experience and Pragmatism.

William James`

85

nown for regularly admitting women and slaves to his school, he argued that death was not to be feared and founded the Garden.

Epicurus

86

The four rules he used in all of his investigative work included dividing problems into simple parts and accepting only the self-evident as true; he codified his approach in Rules for the Direction of the Mind and Discourse on Method

Rene Descartes

87

Name this 1776 work advocating laissez-faire economics, written by Adam Smith.

Wealth of Nations

88

This author defended the Augustinus in his Provincial Letters

Blaise Pascal

89

This man stated “I know that I know nothing.”

Socrates

91

In awork, he describes how a woman married to a syphilitic man would be told to avoid birth control by the Church

Betrand Russell

92

The most famous work by this author of “The Will to Believe” suggests that one ought to value truth only so much as it is useful.

William James

93

One of his works contrasts the “religion of healthy-mindedness” with “the sick soul.”

William James

94

One work by this man in its entirety is written by four pseudonymous authors: Climacus, A, B, and "the judge,” while it was compiled by Victor Eremita.

Soren Kierkegaard

95

This thinker attacked casuistry in a work published under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, intended as a defense of Antoine Arnauld.

Blaise Pascal

96

This thinker was the sole writer and publisher of a magazine that criticized the government of his home nation, The Moment

Soren Kierkegaard

97

This book uses the metaphor of constructing a jigsaw puzzle where all of the pieces not only make a picture, but also fit perfectly together, as an illustration of the title process.

The Structure of the Scientific Revolution

98

The author of Sickness unto Death and Fear and Trembling, name this Danish philosopher who wrote Either/Or.

Soren Kierkegaard

99

While working at Columbia University, he helped develop a proximity fuse for anti-aircraft projectiles.

Milton Friedman

100

One test of this phenomenon found participants would impulsively touch people holding a live electric wire.

Bystander Effect

101

Name this French author of Discipline and Punish, who has a namesake pendulum.

Michel Foucault