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In statistics, the mean is the mathematical average of a set of numbers. The average is calculated by adding up two or more scores and dividing the total by the number of scores.



The mode is the most frequently occurring score in a set of given numbers.



The median is the middle score in a set of given numbers.



A statistical measure of variance. It is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score and then adding one


standard deviation

Standard deviations are scores around the mean of a distribution. It measures how much a set of scores is dispersed around an average measure of variability. Deviations around the mean can be calculated to express it as a variance or a standard deviation.


independent variable

The independent variable is the characteristic of a psychology experiment that is manipulated or changed. For example, in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studying would be the independent variable


dependent variable

The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured in an experiment. For example, in a study looking at how tutoring impacts test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants' test scores