Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (54):
what's going on with depression?
dysregulation of the HPA axis
depression ppl show elevated levels of...
depressed ppl respond abnormally to what test?
tricyclic antidepressants inhibit the reuptake of?
serotonin, NE, and dopamine
what are the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants?
what are the side effects of MAOI antidepressants?
weight gain and tyramine levels... wine and cheese effect - can't have that.
what does new meds like SNRIs do?
selectively block reuptake of serotonin and NE - good for depression accompanied by pain
when we stimulate NE and serotonin receptors, what do we see?
increased 5-HT binding
everything that protects, repairs, promotes new neural growth.
most antidepressants suppress which stage of sleep?
suppress REM, increase SWS
St. John's Worth is essentially what?
MAOI and Tricyclen... it blocks reuptake of serotonin, NE, DA, and MAO....
when is bipolar considered bipolar?
manic episode that lasts over a week.
what's the prevalence of bipolar disorder?
stable, unlike depression and anxiety rates which are unsurprisingly climbing. suggests it's genetic and not environmental.
who is more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar, f or m?
both - same prevalence.
what single dominant gene might be responsible for bipolar disorder?
bipolar disorder is how many more times more common in families with members diagnosed in major Deppressive disorder?
what part of the brain is affected during bipolar episodes?
basal ganglia elevations during manic periods (odd movement)
enlarged amygdala (hypertrophy of neural connections)
what are treatments for bipolar disorder?
how well does it work?
-lithium - only during manic phases... but they hardly ever take it because it feels so good to them.
it works in 70-80% of patients...
-anticonvulsants - alleviates both depression and mania
what's the best treatment for bipolar disorder?
a mix of lithium, anticonvulsants, SSRs and antipsychotics...
what is the largest number of ppl who suffer from anxiety?
phobia - 11.5 mill yo.
what is the main NT system that's involved in anxiety?
what's the real reason someone might have anxiety?
real fucking physiological issues
t or f, generalized anxiety is caused by environmental issues.
false - it's more genetic than anything
what receptors is anxiety affected by?
GABAa receptors - action site of benzodiazepines...
when does OCD usually develop?
what are some causes of OCD?
genetics, brain damage (basal ganglia, cingulate, prefrontal), and strep infections which can trigger autoimmune diseases...
what are the treatments of OCD?
what's the last desperate attempt to quell OCD?
cingulotomy - kill the connective fibers of the cingulum bunders which connect prefrontal and cingulate cortex with limbic cortex...
what are the symptoms of panic disorders?
overwhelming feelings of fear and terror
treatments for panic disorders?
same as OCD
SSRIs and BZD.
what is schizophrenia considered to be?
psychosis characterized by split mind- difference between reality and perception
onset of skitzo?
late teens and early twenties
diagnosed around 30
what is the worst and most common outcome of skitzo?
33%, it gets worse until they just continue with psychotic break
what is positive symptoms of skitzo?
things that skitzo ppl do that normal ppl don't
(seeing something that's not there)
what's negative symptoms of skitzo?
lack of facial expressions, speech, movement
what are the causes of skitzo?
mother or father - whos side contributes to skitzo?
is there a dominant gene for skitzo?
no, it's probably polygenal
which trimester during the influenza epidemic caused more skitzo?
2nd trimester - because its fucking with the cortical migration in the fetus
t or f, ppl born further away from equator are more likely to develop skits.
true - more viral effects
whats the seasonality effect of skitzo?
more likely to be born in later winter/early spring... lack of sunlight? flu season?
why would underweight mothers cause skitzo babies?
lack of thiamine
whats the Rh incompatability?
specifically Rh+ child in an Rh mother.... anemia...
what is the dopamine hypothesis?
which symptoms is it related to?
overactivity of DA synapses?
related to positive symptoms.
what does chlorpromazine do and what does it address?
it addresses the overactivity of DA - it reduces anxiety and effective at relieving psychotic symptoms.
which D receptor does skitzo meds focus on?
DA antagonists focus on D2 receptors.
if you give a skitzo cocaine or amphetamines, what type of effects do you get?
more psychotic behavior...
what are problems with the dopamine hypothesis?
-25% of pxts don't respond to dopamine antagonists...
-atypical antipsychotic meds like clozapine act on serotonin and not dopamine
-drugs change dopamine activity immediately but patients don't improve for weeks...
-PCP produces symptoms similar to skitzo by blocking the NMDA glutamate receptor...
what type of brain abnormalities do skitzos show?
enlarged ventricles - negative symptoms
hippocampus and amygdala are SMALLER
abnormal cell organization
what's the relationship between PCP and skitzo?
they both decrease GABAergic and DA activity in the frontal lobe...
describe the hypofrontality hypothesis
lower frontal lobe activity may account for negative symptoms of skitzo...
are dopamine antagonists better at treating positive or negative symptoms of skitz?
what is "rebooting" the brain referring to?
transcranial magnetic stimulation
does GAD produce autonomic hyperarousal or underarousal?
underarousal... lower heart rate, breathing; etc... they have stronger parasympathetic system in an attempt to inhibit the sympathetic NS.