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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (54):
1

what's going on with depression?

dysregulation of the HPA axis

2

depression ppl show elevated levels of...

growth hormone
thyroid
cortisol

3

depressed ppl respond abnormally to what test?

DST

4

tricyclic antidepressants inhibit the reuptake of?

serotonin, NE, and dopamine

5

what are the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants?

weight gain

6

what are the side effects of MAOI antidepressants?

weight gain and tyramine levels... wine and cheese effect - can't have that.

7

what does new meds like SNRIs do?

selectively block reuptake of serotonin and NE - good for depression accompanied by pain

8

when we stimulate NE and serotonin receptors, what do we see?

increased 5-HT binding
increase cAMP
CREB
BDNF

everything that protects, repairs, promotes new neural growth.

9

most antidepressants suppress which stage of sleep?

suppress REM, increase SWS

10

St. John's Worth is essentially what?

MAOI and Tricyclen... it blocks reuptake of serotonin, NE, DA, and MAO....

11

when is bipolar considered bipolar?

manic episode that lasts over a week.

12

what's the prevalence of bipolar disorder?

stable, unlike depression and anxiety rates which are unsurprisingly climbing. suggests it's genetic and not environmental.

13

who is more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar, f or m?

both - same prevalence.

14

what single dominant gene might be responsible for bipolar disorder?

chromosome 4.

15

bipolar disorder is how many more times more common in families with members diagnosed in major Deppressive disorder?

3-4 times

16

what part of the brain is affected during bipolar episodes?

basal ganglia elevations during manic periods (odd movement)

enlarged amygdala (hypertrophy of neural connections)

17

what are treatments for bipolar disorder?

how well does it work?

-lithium - only during manic phases... but they hardly ever take it because it feels so good to them.

it works in 70-80% of patients...

-anticonvulsants - alleviates both depression and mania

18

what's the best treatment for bipolar disorder?

a mix of lithium, anticonvulsants, SSRs and antipsychotics...

19

what is the largest number of ppl who suffer from anxiety?

phobia - 11.5 mill yo.

20

what is the main NT system that's involved in anxiety?

GABA

21

what's the real reason someone might have anxiety?

real fucking physiological issues

22

t or f, generalized anxiety is caused by environmental issues.

false - it's more genetic than anything

23

what receptors is anxiety affected by?

GABAa receptors - action site of benzodiazepines...

24

when does OCD usually develop?

early childhood

25

what are some causes of OCD?

genetics, brain damage (basal ganglia, cingulate, prefrontal), and strep infections which can trigger autoimmune diseases...

26

what are the treatments of OCD?

SSRIs....
Behavioral treatment

27

what's the last desperate attempt to quell OCD?

cingulotomy - kill the connective fibers of the cingulum bunders which connect prefrontal and cingulate cortex with limbic cortex...

28

what are the symptoms of panic disorders?

overwhelming feelings of fear and terror

29

treatments for panic disorders?

same as OCD

SSRIs and BZD.

30

what is schizophrenia considered to be?

psychosis characterized by split mind- difference between reality and perception

31

onset of skitzo?

late teens and early twenties

diagnosed around 30

32

what is the worst and most common outcome of skitzo?

33%, it gets worse until they just continue with psychotic break

33

what is positive symptoms of skitzo?

things that skitzo ppl do that normal ppl don't

(seeing something that's not there)

34

what's negative symptoms of skitzo?

lack of facial expressions, speech, movement

35

what are the causes of skitzo?

genetic
environmental
pharmacological
neurological

36

mother or father - whos side contributes to skitzo?

older father

37

is there a dominant gene for skitzo?

no, it's probably polygenal

38

which trimester during the influenza epidemic caused more skitzo?

why?

2nd trimester - because its fucking with the cortical migration in the fetus

39

t or f, ppl born further away from equator are more likely to develop skits.

true - more viral effects

40

whats the seasonality effect of skitzo?

more likely to be born in later winter/early spring... lack of sunlight? flu season?

41

why would underweight mothers cause skitzo babies?

lack of thiamine

42

whats the Rh incompatability?

specifically Rh+ child in an Rh mother.... anemia...

43

what is the dopamine hypothesis?

which symptoms is it related to?

overactivity of DA synapses?

related to positive symptoms.

44

what does chlorpromazine do and what does it address?

it addresses the overactivity of DA - it reduces anxiety and effective at relieving psychotic symptoms.

45

which D receptor does skitzo meds focus on?

DA antagonists focus on D2 receptors.

46

if you give a skitzo cocaine or amphetamines, what type of effects do you get?

more psychotic behavior...

47

what are problems with the dopamine hypothesis?

-25% of pxts don't respond to dopamine antagonists...

-atypical antipsychotic meds like clozapine act on serotonin and not dopamine

-drugs change dopamine activity immediately but patients don't improve for weeks...

-PCP produces symptoms similar to skitzo by blocking the NMDA glutamate receptor...

48

what type of brain abnormalities do skitzos show?

enlarged ventricles - negative symptoms

hippocampus and amygdala are SMALLER

abnormal cell organization

49

what's the relationship between PCP and skitzo?

they both decrease GABAergic and DA activity in the frontal lobe...

50

describe the hypofrontality hypothesis

lower frontal lobe activity may account for negative symptoms of skitzo...

51

are dopamine antagonists better at treating positive or negative symptoms of skitz?

positive...

52

what is "rebooting" the brain referring to?

insulin coma

transcranial magnetic stimulation

53

does GAD produce autonomic hyperarousal or underarousal?

underarousal... lower heart rate, breathing; etc... they have stronger parasympathetic system in an attempt to inhibit the sympathetic NS.

54

what type of symptoms do ppl with OCD display?

species-specific behavior patterns.